hyperprolactinemia
HYPERPROLACTINEMIA
Hyperprolactinemia is the presence of elevated prolactin levels that occurs in about one-thirds of patients w/ chronic kidney disease & resolves after successful transplantation.
It may cause visual field defects or headache in both men and women.
In women, signs and symptoms include menstrual irregularity, galactorrhea, infertility, vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, loss of libido and reduction in vertebral bone density (in sustained, pronounced hyperprolactinemia).
While in men, signs and symptoms include diminished libido, hypogonadism, gonadotrophin suppression, osteopenia, decreased muscle mass, and decreased facial hair that may occur in prolonged hyperprolactinemia.

Surgical Intervention

Transsphenoidal Surgery

  • Preferred method
    • Craniotomy is rarely performed

Indications:

  • Patients who are resistant to or exhibit non-tolerance to optimal medical therapy
  • Patients w/ intrasellar tumor & long-term medical treatment is not acceptable
  • Patients w/ tumors pressing on the optic chiasm
  • Effects:
    • Microprolactinomas: Initially 70% achieve prolactin (PRL) normalization
    • Macroprolactinomas: Only 30% are successfully resected
    • Recurrence of microprolactinomas & macroprolactinomas occurs in 20% of patients w/in 1 year of surgery
    • Recurrence rates reach 50% in long-term follow-up of macroprolactinomas
  • Potential complications: Usually infrequent when performed by experienced surgeons
    • Mortality rate: 0.3%
    • Morbidity rate: 0.4%
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Endocrinology - Malaysia digital copy today!
DOWNLOAD
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
25 Aug 2015
At the Northern Pharmacists Convention cum 48th Malaysian Pharmaceutical Society Seminar 2015 held recently at Bayview Beach Hotel, Penang, Sanofi invited three distinguished speakers – Dr Khaw Chong Hui, Dr Lo Kang Shang Chit, and Professor Dr Karl-Josef Gundermann – to speak on the importance of renal protection in managing diabetic hypertension, the use of antihistamines in managing chronic urticaria (CU), and the role of essential phospholipids (EPL) in fatty liver diseases, respectively.
Roshini Claire Anthony, 07 Nov 2017

Women who are underweight, particularly in their late teens and mid-thirties, may be at risk for early menopause, a recent study found. 

16 Aug 2014

New drug applications approved by US FDA as of 15-30 Aug which includes New Molecular Entities (NMEs) and new biologics. It does not include Tentative Approvals. Supplemental approvals may have occurred since the original approval date.

Audrey Abella, 20 Jan 2017
Diabetes was not a risk factor for total knee replacement (TKR) due to severe knee osteoarthritis, a Singapore study found.