Hyperprolactinemia is the presence of elevated prolactin levels that occurs in about one-thirds of patients w/ chronic kidney disease & resolves after successful transplantation.
It may cause visual field defects or headache in both men and women.
In women, signs and symptoms include menstrual irregularity, galactorrhea, infertility, vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, loss of libido and reduction in vertebral bone density (in sustained, pronounced hyperprolactinemia).
While in men, signs and symptoms include diminished libido, hypogonadism, gonadotrophin suppression, osteopenia, decreased muscle mass, and decreased facial hair that may occur in prolonged hyperprolactinemia.
  1. Molitch ME. Disorders of prolactin secretion. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2001 Sep;30(3):585-610. PMID: 11571932
  2. Gibney J, Smith TP, McKenna TJ. The impact on clinical practice of routine screening for macroprolactin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jul;90(7):3927-3932. PMID: 15811931
  3. Serri O, Chik CL, Ur E, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia. CMAJ. 2003 Sep;169(6):575-581. PMID: 12975226
  4. Pizone JJ, Katzelson L, Danila DC, et al. Primary medical therapy of micro- and macroprolactinomas in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Sep;85(9):3053-3057
  5. Molitch ME. Medical treatment of prolactinomas. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1999 Mar;28(1):143-169. PMID: 10207689
  6. Verhelst J, Abs R, et al. Cabergoline in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia: a study of 455 patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Jul;84(7):2518-2522. PMID: 10404830
  7. Disorders of the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus. Harrison's Online: McGraw-Hill Companies; 2003. http://harrisonsonline.com
  8. Thorner MO. Hyperprolactinemia. Comprehensive clinical endocrinology. 3rd ed. London: Mosby; 2002
  9. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Endocrinology/15/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Endocrinology.xml
  10. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  11. Shenenberger D. Hyperprolactinemia. eMedicine. http://emedicine.medscape.com. Oct 2005.
  12. Segu VB. Prolactinoma. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/124634-overview. Aug 2002
  13. Melmed S, Casanueva FF, Hofmann AR, et al.. Diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.. 2011 Feb;96(2):273-288. https://www.endocrine.org/~/media/endosociety/Files/Publications/Clinical%20Practice%20Guidelines/Diagnosis-Treatment-of-Hyperprolactinemia.pdf. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-1692. Accessed 5 May 2014. PMID: 21296991
  14. Vilar L, Fleseriu M, Bronstein MD. Challenges and pitfalls in the diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2014 Feb;58(1):9-22. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/abem/v58n1/0004-2730-abem-58-1-0009.pdf. PMID: 24728159
  15. Barlier A, Jaquet P. Quinagolide – a valuable treatment option for hyperprolactinemia. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006 Feb;154(2):187-195. doi: 10.1530/eje.1.02075. PMID: 16452531
  16. Snyder PJ. Management of hyperprolactinemia. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Feb 2019.
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Endocrinology - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
5 days ago
Podcast: Dr Shamir Mehta briefly discusses the clinical impact of findings from the COMPLETE trial
6 days ago
In type 2 diabetes patients taking sulfonylureas, hypoglycaemia duration is longer at night and is inversely correlated with the level of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), a new study reports.
5 days ago
Podcast: Prof Derek Chew explains the importance of a 1-hour troponin T protocol in suspected ACS as discussed in the RAPID-TnT trial
5 days ago
Sodium-glucose transport protein 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors exert a putative epigenetic regulation of the protecting cardiovascular effect, reports a study, adding that dapagliflozin may protect the kidneys by preserving renal vasodilating capacity.