Contraceptive methods are used to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Contraception allows women/couples to explore plan on childbearing and family planning.
Hormonal contraception is a method with high rate of effectiveness and ease of administration. It is the widely used method of reversible contraception.
It does not protect against STIs/HIV.

Hormonal Contraception References

  1. Armstrong C. ACOG guidelines on noncontraceptive uses of hormonal contraceptives. Am Fam Physician. 2010 Aug;82:288-295. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0801/p288.html. Accessed 03 Feb 2013
  2. Black A, Francouer D, Rowe T, et al. SOGC clinical practice guidelines: Canadian contraception consensus. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2004 Mar;26(3):219-296. PMID: 15016334
  3. Batur P, Elder J, Mayer M. Update on contraception: benefits and risks of the new formulations. Cleve Clin J Med. 2003 Aug;70(8):681-696. PMID: 12959393
  4. Dunn S, Guilbert E, et al. Emergency contraception. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2012 Sep;34(9):870-878. http://www.sogc.org. Accessed 03 Feb 2013. PMID: 22971457
  5. Gupta N. Advances in hormonal contraception. Adolesc Med Clin. 2006 Oct;17(3):653-671. PMID: 17030284
  6. Guilbert E, Black A, Dunn S, et al. Missed hormonal contraceptives: new recommendations. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2008 Nov;30(11):1050-1062. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. PMID: 19126288
  7. Dunn S, Guilbert E, Lefebvre G, et al. Emergency contraception. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2003 Aug;25(8):673-679. PMID: 12908020
  8. Milsom I, Korver T. Ovulation incidence with oral contraceptives: a literature review. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2008 Oct;34(4):237-246. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. PMID: 18854069
  9. Platform for Action and the Beijing Declaration. Fourth World Conference on Women; Sep 4-5, 1995, Beijing, China. New York: United Nation's Department of Public Information. 1996 Sep;126(21):1-11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. PMID: 12319677
  10. Lesnewski R, Prine L. Initiating hormonal contraception. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Jul;74(1):105-112. PMID: 16848384
  11. Korver Y, Klipping C, Hegar-Mahn D, et al. Maintenance of ovulation inhibition with 75-μg desogestrel-only contraceptive pill (Cerazette®) after scheduled 12-h delays in tablet intake. Contraception. 2005 Jan;71(1):8-13. PMID: 15639065
  12. Spencer AL, Bonnema R, McNamara MC. Helping women choose appropriate hormonal contraception: update on risks, benefits, and indications. Am J Med. 2009 Jun;122(6):497-506. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.01.016. PMID: 19486709
  13. Robert AH, Anita LN. A Pocket Guide to Managing Contraception: Bridging the Gap Communications; 2003.
  14. Mishell D, Stenchever M, Droegemueller W, Herbst A. Oral steroid contraceptives. In: Stenchever M. Comprehensive Gynecology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2001:303-324.
  15. Levine JP, Mravcak S, Wu J. Contraception. In: Rakel RE. Textbook of Family Medicine. 7th. Philadelphia: Saunders, Elsevier; 2007.
  16. Darney PD. Hormonal contraception. In: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, eds. William's Textbook of Endocrinology. 11th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier; 2008
  17. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/OBGYN/29/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/OBGYN.xml
  18. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Emergency contraception. http://www.acog.org/. Dec 2005.
  19. Association of Reproductive Health Professionals. A quick reference guide for clinicians. Choosing a birth control method. http://www.arhp.org. Sep 2011. Accessed 03 Feb 2013.
  20. Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare. Emergency contraception. http://www.fsrh.org. Jan 2012. Accessed 03 Feb 2013.
  21. World Health Organization. Improving access to quality care family planning. Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, 2nd ed. WHO. http://www.who.int.
  22. Faculty of Family Planning and Reproductive Healthcare Clinical Guidance. First prescription of combined oral contraception. Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare. http://www.fsrh.org. Jan 2007.
  23. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Natural family planning. Frequently asked questions. FAQ024. Contraception. http://www.acog.org. Aug 2011. Accessed 04 Feb 2013.
  24. Practical Support for Clinical Governance. Prodigy guidance-contraception. http://www.prodigy.nhs.uk. 2004.
  25. Faculty of Family Planning and Reproductive Healthcare Clinical Guidance. Progesterone-only pills. Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare. http://www.fsrh.org. Jun 2009.
  26. Faculty of Family Planning and Reproductive Healthcare Effectiveness Unit. Progesterone-ony injectable contraception. Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare. http://www.fsrh.org. Jun 2009.
  27. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Venous thromboembolism and hormonal contraception. RCOG Green-top Guideline No. 40. http://www.rcog.org.uk. Jul 2010. Accessed 03 Feb 2013.
  28. Marshall J. Progestins in oral contraceptives: a comparative review. http://www.femalepatient.com. Feb 2003.
  29. Caddy S, Yudin MH, Hakim J, Money DM; Infectious Disease Committee. Best practices to minimize risk of infection with intrauterine device insertion . J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2014 Mar;36(3):266-276. http://sogc.org. PMID: 2461289
  30. Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use, 2013: adapted from the World Health Organization selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use, 2nd edition. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2013 Jun;62(RR-05):1-60. http://www.cdc.gov. PMID: 23784109
  31. Department of Health. The Philippine clinical standards manual on family planning (2014 edition). Manila, Philippines: DOH; 2014. http://www.doh.gov.ph. Accessed 17 Aug 2015:29-134.
  32. World Health Organization. Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use. 5th ed. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2015. http://apps.who.int. Accessed 18 Aug 2015.
  33. Black A, Guilbert E, Costescu D, et al. Canadian contraception consensus (part 3 of 4): chapter 7 - intrauterine contraception. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2016 Feb;38(2):182-222. doi: 10.1016/j.jogc.2015.12.002. PMID: 27032746
  34. Black A, Guilbert E, Costescu D, et al. Canadian contraception consensus (part 3 of 4): chapter 8 - progestin-only contraception. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2016 Mar;38(3):279-300. doi: 10.1016/j.jogc.2015.12.003. Accessed 17 Aug 2016. PMID: 27106200
  35. Black A, Guilbert E, Costescu D, et al. No. 329-Canadian contraception consensus part 4 of 4 chapter 9: combined hormonal contraception. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2017 Apr;39(4):229-268.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.jogc.2016.10.005. PMID: 28413042
  36. World Health Organization. Selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use, third edition. WHO. http://apps.who.int. 2016.
  37. Committee on Practice Bulletins-Gynecology, Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Work Group. ACOG practice bulletin no. 186: long-acting reversible contraception: implants and intrauterine devices. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Nov;130(5):e251-e269. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002400. Accessed 09 Jul 2018. PMID: 29064972
  38. Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Combined hormonal contraception and the risk of venous thromboembolism: a guideline. Fertil Steril. 2017 Jan;107(1):43-51. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.09.027. PMID: 27793376
  39. Sacco S, Merki-Feld GS, Ægidius KL, et al; EHF and ESC. Hormonal contraceptives and risk of ischemic stroke in women with migraine: a consensus statement from the European Headache Federation (EHF) and the European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health (ESC). J Headache Pain. 2017 Oct 30;18(1):108. doi: 10.1186/s10194-017-0815-1. PMID: 29086160
  40. World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research (WHO/RHR) and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health/Center for Communication Programs (CCP), Knowledge for Health Project. Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers (2018 update). World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/. 2018.
  41. Curtis KM, Jatlaoui TC, Tepper NK, et al. U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016 Jul 29;65(4):1-66. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.rr6504a1. PMID: 27467319
  42. Annovera highlights of prescribing information. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov. 2018.
  43. Nelson AL. Comprehensive overview of the recently FDA-approved contraceptive vaginal ring releasing segesterone acetate and ethinylestradiol: A new year-long, patient controlled, reversible birth control method. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2019 Oct;12(10):953-963. doi: 10.1080/17512433.2019.1669448. PMID: 31526281
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