Contraceptive methods are used to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Contraception allows women/couples to explore plan on childbearing and family planning.
Hormonal contraception is a method with high rate of effectiveness & ease of administration. It is the widely used method of reversible contraception.
It does not protect against STIs/HIV.
Shilpa Kolhe, MBBS, MD, MRCOG; Shilpa Deb, MBBS, DGO, MRCOG,
01 Aug 2012
Dysmenorrhoea is a medical condition characterized by severe uterine pain during menstruation manifesting as cyclical lower abdominal or pelvic pain, which may also radiate to the back and thighs. The term dysmenorrhoea is derived from the Greek words ‘dys’ meaning difficult, painful or abnormal, ‘meno’ meaning month, and ‘rrhea’ meaning flow. It is commonly divided into primary dysmenorrhoea, where there is no coexistent pathology, and secondary dysmenorrhoea where there is an identifiable pathological condition known to contribute to painful menstruation. Symptoms of primary dysmenorrhoea begin a few hours before the start of menstruation and are often relieved during the first few days of bleeding. The initial onset of primary dysmenorrhoea is usually shortly after menarche (6–12 months), when ovulatory cycles are established. Secondary dysmenorrhoea can also occur at any time after menarche but is most commonly observed in women in their third and fourth decade of life in association with an existing condition.
Adolescent females often experience menstrual problems, and these are usually related to mood changes. In this study, the association between dysmenorrhea and depressive symptoms, anxiety, and premenstrual syndrome was examined.