Primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is first infection with either herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) or herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) in individuals who do not have antibodies to either HSV-1 or HSV-2.
First episode-non primary infection is infection with either HSV-1 or HSV-2 in individuals who have previously existing antibodies against HSV-1 or HSV-2 respectively.
Recurrent HSV infection results from reactivation of latent virus. It is usually brought about by triggering factors eg UV light, immunosuppression.
Orolabial HSV disease is mostly caused by HSV-1 that occurs most commonly in children <5 years of age. It is transmitted through close contact with individuals who have active viral shedding.
Genital HSV disease is caused by HSV-2 that is the usual cause of herpes genitalis. It typically occurs in adults and transmitted through sexual contact.
Infection with herpes simplex virus occurs rarely in young infants undergoing meningitis evaluation, with the prevalence peaking in the second week of life and declining substantially in the second month of life, a study reports.
In male partners of infertile couples, infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) appears to exert a negative effect on two equally important components of semen, spermatozoa and seminal fluid, which may in turn influence fertility, as shown in a recent study.
There is a high incidence of candidaemia and a substantial burden of comorbidities among neonates as confirmed in a recent nationwide epidemiologic study of paediatric candidaemia. An increasing proportion of nonalbicans species resistant to fluconazole has also been observed.