hepatitis%20c
HEPATITIS C

Hepatitis C can be transmitted through blood transfusions, organ transplants, percutaneous (especially IV drug use), sexual or perinatal route.

It has an incubation period of 14-180 days.

Goal of treatment is to prevent progression to chronic hepatitis C through antiviral treatment of acute hepatitis C. Also, it aims to prevent occurrence of liver-related complications through antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

  1. Workowski KA, Berman S, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR. 2010 Dec;59(RR-12):1-110. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. Accessed 01 Jun 2012. PMID: 21160459
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2002. MMWR. 2002 May;51(RR-6):59-66. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12184549. PMID: 12184549
  3. Ancell CD, Phipps J, Young L. Thymosin alpha-1. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2001 May;58(10):879-885. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=11381492. PMID: 11381492
  4. Dienstag JL, McHutchison JG. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on the management of hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 2006 Jan;130(1):225-230. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2005.11.011. PMID: 16401485
  5. Ghany MG, Nelson DR, Strader DB, et al. An update on the treatment of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus infection: 2011 practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Sep 26, 2011. Hepatology. 2011 Oct;54(4):1433-1444. doi: 10.1002/hep.24641. PMID: 21898493
  6. Kim AI, Saab S. Treatment of hepatitis C. Am J Med. 2005 Aug;118(8):808-815. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.01.073. PMID: 16084169
  7. Omata M, Kanda T, Yu ML, et al. APASL consensus statement and management algorithms for hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatol Int. 2012 Apr;6(2):409-435.
  8. Rudolph A, Wang G, Sherman KE, et al. Therapeutic strategies for liver disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Jul;2(7):003-12.
  9. Radcliffe K. European STD guidelines. Int J STD AIDS. 2001 Oct;12(Suppl 3):1-102. http://www.iusti.org. PMID: 11589789
  10. Ryder SD, Beckingham IJ. ABC of diseases of liver, pancreas and biliary system: acute hepatitis. BMJ. 2001 Jan;322(7279):151-153. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=11159575. PMID: 11159575
  11. Strader DB, Wright T, Thomas DL, et al; American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2004 Apr;39(4):1147-1171. doi: 10.1002/hep.20119. PMID: 15057920
  12. Rutherford AE. Acute viral hepatitis. Merck Manual; 2013 Mar. http://www.merckmanuals.com/. Accessed 02 Oct 2013.
  13. Rutherford AE. Chronic hepatitis. Merck Manual; 2013 Mar. http://www.merckmanuals.com/. Accessed 02 Oct 2013.
  14. Australian National Council on AIDS, Hepatitis C and Related Diseases (ANCAHRD) Hepatitis C Committee and Clinical Trial and Research Committee (CTARC). A model of care for the management of hepatitis C infection in adults. http://www.bvsde.paho.org/. Jul 2003.
  15. Cramp M, Rosenberg W. British Society for Gastroenterology guideline on the treatment of hepatitis C incorporating the use of pegylated interferons. http://www.bsg.org.uk. 2001.
  16. National Guideline Clearinghouse. Association for Genitourinary Medicine, Medical Society for the Study of Venereal Disease. Complete summary of 2002 national guideline on the management of viral hepatitides A, B, C. http://www.guideline.gov.
  17. College of Paediatrics, Academy of Medicine Malaysia. Malaysian immunisation manual. http://www.acadmed.org.my/. 2001.
  18. Wolf DC. Viral hepatitis. eMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/. 2004.
  19. Ghany MG, Strader DB, Thomas DL, et al. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: an update. Hepatology. 2009 Apr;49(4):1335-1374. doi: 10.1002/hep.22759. PMID: 19330875
  20. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases & Infectious Diseases Society of America. Recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C. HCV Guidelines. http://www.hcvguidelines.org. 12 Mar 2014. Accessed 20 Mar 2014.
  21. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: management of hepatitis C virus infection. J Hepatol. 2014 Feb;60(2):392-420. http://www.easl.eu. Accessed 20 Mar 2014. PMID: 24331294
  22. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL recommendations on treatment of hepatitis C 2014. J Hepatol. 2014 Aug;61(2):373-395. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2014.05.001. PMID: 24818984
  23. World Health Organization. Guidelines for the screening, care and treatment of persons with hepatitis C infection. WHO. http://www.who.int/. Apr 2014.
  24. Hepatology Society of the Philippines (HSP) Hepatitis C Virus Consensus Core Group. The 2014 Hepatology Society of the Philippines consensus statements on the diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C. HSP website. http://www.liverphil.org/. 2014.
  25. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL recommendations on treatment of hepatitis C 2015. J Hepatol. 2015 Jul;63(1):199-236. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2015.03.025. Accessed 08 Jul 2015. PMID: 25911336
  26. Workowski KA, Bolan GA. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015 Jun 5;64(RR-03):1-137. http://www.cdc.gov/. Accessed 17 Aug 2016. PMID: 26042815
  27. World Health Organization. Guidelines for the screening, care and treatment of persons with chronic hepatitis C infection. Updated Version, April 2016. WHO. http://apps.who.int/. Accessed 29 Apr 2016.
  28. Omata M, Kanda T, Wei L, et al. APASL consensus statements and recommendation on treatment of hepatitis C. Apr 29, 2016. Hepatol Int. doi: 10.1007/s12072-016-9717-6. Accessed 05 Aug 2016. PMID: 27130427
  29. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD); Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). HCV guidance: recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C. http://www.hcvguidelines.org/. 06 Jul 2016. Accessed 02 Nov 2016.
  30. AASLD, IDSA. Patients with decompensated cirrhosis. HCV guidance: recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C. http://www.hcvguidelines.org. 21 Sep 2017. Accessed 22 Sep 2017.
  31. FDA approves Mavyret for hepatitis C. U.S. Food & Drug Administration website. https://www.fda.gov. 03 Aug 2017. Accessed 22 Sep 2017.
  32. Lim SG, Aghemo A, Chen PJ, et al. Management of hepatitis C virus infection in the Asia-Pacific region: an update. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Jan;2(1):52-62. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(16)30080-2. PMID: 28404015
  33. Petruzziello A, Marigliano S, Loquercio G, et al. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: an up-date of the distribution and circulation of hepatitis C virus genotypes. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Sep 14;22(34):7824-7840. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i34.7824. PMID: 27678366
  34. Vosevi prescribing information. U.S. Food & Drug Administration website. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov. 01 Sep 2017. Accessed 22 Sep 2017.
  35. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines: liver transplantation. J Hepatol. 2016 Feb;64(2):433-485. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2015.10.006. PMID: 26597456
  36. AASLD-IDSA HCV Guidance Panel. Hepatitis C guidance 2018 update: AASLD-IDSA recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Oct 30;67(10):1477-1492. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy585. PMID: 30215672
  37. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL recommendations on treatment of hepatitis C 2018. J Hepatol. 2018 Aug;69(2):461-511. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2018.03.026. PMID: 29650333
  38. WHO Essential Medicines List Application. Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir/Ritonavir co‐formulated tablet with or without Dasabuvir. WHO. http://www.who.int. 2015.
  39. World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for the care and treatment of persons diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. WHO. http://www.who.int. Jul 2018.
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Gastroenterology - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Roshini Claire Anthony, 5 days ago

For coffee drinkers, drinking filtered coffee may be tied to a lower mortality risk, including cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality, a study from Norway suggested.

Stephen Padilla, 6 days ago
Use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV), similar to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), appears to lessen mortality but may increase the risk for transmission of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in healthcare workers, suggest the results of a study.
2 days ago
Use of corticosteroid is not associated with improved outcomes in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients admitted to the hospital with acute exacerbation (AE), reveals a recent study. In addition, corticosteroids may even contribute to reduced overall survival following exacerbation.
Dr. Wong Soon Tee, 6 days ago
Acne is a common skin problem seen in primary care. Dr Wong Soon Tee of Assurance Skin Clinic at Mt Elizabeth Novena Hospital, Singapore shares his insights with Pearl Toh on how to manage acne in the primary care setting.