hepatitis%20b
HEPATITIS B

Hepatitis B is transmitted through perinatal, percutaneous, sexual, and close person-to-person contact, ie by open cuts and sores.

Human hepatitis B virus belongs to the family of Hepadnaviridae of small, enveloped, primarily hepatotropic DNA viruses. The virus replicates in the host and assembles exclusively in the hepatocytes and virions are released non-cytopathically through the cellular secretory pathway.

Chronic hepatitis B is defined as a chronic necroinflammatory liver disease due to persistent hepatitis B virus infection.

Hepatitis D infection is found only in patients with hepatitis B as it requires the hepatitis B outer coat. It is transmitted through sexual and percutaneous (especially IV drug use) routes.

Hepatitis B and D both have an incubation period of 30-180 days.

Hepatitis%20b Patient Education

Patient Education

Hepatitis D

Partner Notification

  • Partner notification for at-risk contacts

Patient Education

  • Provide the patient with a detailed explanation of his condition
    • Emphasize the disease’s long-term implications (eg long-term medical therapy, continuous monitoring) for their and their partners’ health
    • Provide clear, accurate, written information
  • Advise patients to avoid unprotected sexual intercourse

Acute Hepatitis B

Partner Notification

  • Partner notification for at-risk contacts
    • Contact tracing should include any sexual contact (penetrative vaginal or anal or oral/anal) or needle-sharing partners within 2 weeks before onset of jaundice until the patient becomes negative for HBsAg
  • All non-immune sexual and household contacts must be vaccinated

Patient Education

  • Provide the patients with a detailed explanation of their condition
    • Emphasize the disease’s long-term implications for their and their partners’ health
    • Provide clear, accurate, written information
  • Advise patients to avoid unprotected sexual intercourse, emphasize condom use
  • Screen for other sexually-transmitted diseases in cases of sexually acquired hepatitis or if otherwise appropriate

Chronic Hepatitis B

Partner Notification

  • Trace contacts as far back as any episode of jaundice or to the time when infection is thought to have been acquired
  • All non-immune sexual and household contacts must be vaccinated

Patient Education

  • Provide the patient with a detailed explanation of his condition
    • Emphasize the disease’s long-term implications (eg long-term medical therapy, continuous monitoring) for their and their partners’ health
    • Provide clear, accurate, written information
  • Abstinence or limited use of alcohol to prevent further liver injury
  • Counseling regarding prevention of transmission of HBV
    • Sexual transmission: Protected sexual intercourse ie condom use
    • Perinatal transmission: Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIg) and hepatitis B vaccine at delivery for babies of HBV-infected mothers
    • Inadvertent transmission via environmental contamination from a blood spill
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