Hepatitis B is transmitted through perinatal, percutaneous, sexual, and close person-to-person contact, ie by open cuts and sores.
Human hepatitis B virus belongs to the family of Hepadnaviridae of small, enveloped, primarily hepatotropic DNA viruses. The virus replicates in the host and assembles exclusively in the hepatocytes and virions are released non-cytopathically through the cellular secretory pathway.
Chronic hepatitis B is defined as a chronic necroinflammatory liver disease due to persistent hepatitis B virus infection.
Hepatitis D infection is found only in patients with hepatitis B as it requires the hepatitis B outer coat. It is transmitted through sexual and percutaneous (especially IV drug use) routes.
Hepatitis B and D both have an incubation period of 30-180 days.
Besifovir dipivoxil maleate (BSV) for hepatitis B virus infection produces lasting effects and is as good as tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, according to the results of a phase III trial. However, BSV has a better safety profile with respect to bone and renal outcomes.
The patient profiles of individuals diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vary depending on whether the cause of HCC is hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection or cryptogenic, a Singapore study found.
Hepatitis D virus infection is highly prevalent in subgroups of individuals with intravenous drug use and those with high-risk sexual behaviour, study has reported. Its prevalence has also increased twofold over time in patients infected with hepatitis B virus.
Poor adherence to entecavir treatment increases the risk of developing adverse liver-related events, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhotic complications and mortality, in patients with chronic hepatitis B, especially among those with liver cirrhosis, as shown in a recent study.
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate appears to be more effective than entecavir with respect to viral suppression, liver function improvement and short-term survival in the treatment of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) due to the reactivation of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV-ACLF), a study has found.
The combination therapy comprising carfilzomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (KCd) is effective, with a tolerable safety profile, in an Asian cohort with high-risk multiple myeloma (MM) — thus providing a more economical alternative as a potential upfront regimen in resource-limited settings, according to leading experts during a myeloma education webinar.
Extremes of sleep duration (≤5 or ≥10 hours/day), which is a known mortality risk factor in the general population, may increase absolute mortality in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a prospective study has shown.
Insulin icodec, an in-development basal insulin analogue administered once weekly, was as effective as once-daily insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) insufficiently controlled with metformin with or without a DPP-4* inhibitor, according to a phase II trial presented at EASD 2020.