Hepatitis B is transmitted through perinatal, percutaneous, sexual, and close person-to-person contact, ie by open cuts and sores.
Human hepatitis B virus belongs to the family of Hepadnaviridae of small, enveloped, primarily hepatotropic DNA viruses. The virus replicates in the host and assembles exclusively in the hepatocytes and virions are released non-cytopathically through the cellular secretory pathway.
Chronic hepatitis B is defined as a chronic necroinflammatory liver disease due to persistent hepatitis B virus infection.
Hepatitis D infection is found only in patients with hepatitis B as it requires the hepatitis B outer coat. It is transmitted through sexual and percutaneous (especially IV drug use) routes.
Hepatitis B and D both have an incubation period of 30-180 days.
In highly viraemic mothers, initiating treatment with tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) at the 13th gestational week or later in pregnancy puts a lid on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and prevents vertical transmission when infants receive standard immunoprophylaxis, as shown in a study.
In virologically suppressed patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, switching from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) did not affect their rates of viral suppression, according to the final 96-week analysis of a phase III study.
A trivalent vaccine against hepatitis (hep B) is safe and effectively elicits robust immune response compared with a monovalent Hep B vaccine, according to the PROTECT and CONSTANT studies presented during the 2020 digital ILC.
Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication contributes to an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and suppressing this replication with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate yields greater HCC risk reduction than with entecavir, according to the results of a meta-analysis.
Patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who are virologically suppressed after treatment with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) could potentially switch to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), according to a recent phase III study.
Besifovir dipivoxil maleate has antiviral efficacy against chronic hepatitis B that is similar to that of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate but with a lower impact on bone and renal safety, as shown in the results of a phase III trial involving Asian patients.
A subgroup of patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who ceased their long-term nucleotide analogue treatment maintained virological suppression, pointing to a group of patients who may be suitable for treatment cessation, according to a recent study.
The combination therapy comprising carfilzomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (KCd) is effective, with a tolerable safety profile, in an Asian cohort with high-risk multiple myeloma (MM) — thus providing a more economical alternative as a potential upfront regimen in resource-limited settings, according to leading experts during a myeloma education webinar.
Extremes of sleep duration (≤5 or ≥10 hours/day), which is a known mortality risk factor in the general population, may increase absolute mortality in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a prospective study has shown.
Insulin icodec, an in-development basal insulin analogue administered once weekly, was as effective as once-daily insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) insufficiently controlled with metformin with or without a DPP-4* inhibitor, according to a phase II trial presented at EASD 2020.