Hepatitis B is transmitted through perinatal, percutaneous, sexual, and close person-to-person contact, ie by open cuts and sores.
Human hepatitis B virus belongs to the family of Hepadnaviridae of small, enveloped, primarily hepatotropic DNA viruses. The virus replicates in the host and assembles exclusively in the hepatocytes and virions are released non-cytopathically through the cellular secretory pathway.
Chronic hepatitis B is defined as a chronic necroinflammatory liver disease due to persistent hepatitis B virus infection.
Hepatitis D infection is found only in patients with hepatitis B as it requires the hepatitis B outer coat. It is transmitted through sexual and percutaneous (especially IV drug use) routes.
Hepatitis B and D both have an incubation period of 30-180 days.
In virologically suppressed patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, switching from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) did not affect their rates of viral suppression, according to the final 96-week analysis of a phase III study.
A trivalent vaccine against hepatitis (Hep B) is safe and effectively elicits robust immune response compared with a monovalent Hep B vaccine, according to the PROTECT and CONSTANT studies presented during the 2020 digital ILC.
Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication contributes to an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and suppressing this replication with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate yields greater HCC risk reduction than with entecavir, according to the results of a meta-analysis.
Patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who are virologically suppressed after treatment with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) could potentially switch to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), according to a recent phase III study.
Besifovir dipivoxil maleate has antiviral efficacy against chronic hepatitis B that is similar to that of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate but with a lower impact on bone and renal safety, as shown in the results of a phase III trial involving Asian patients.
A subgroup of patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who ceased their long-term nucleotide analogue treatment maintained virological suppression, pointing to a group of patients who may be suitable for treatment cessation, according to a recent study.
Besifovir dipivoxil maleate (BSV) for hepatitis B virus infection produces lasting effects and is as good as tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, according to the results of a phase III trial. However, BSV has a better safety profile with respect to bone and renal outcomes.
In patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) receiving angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, high dosing confers benefits for the risk of death or hospitalization that are similar to that obtained with lower dosing, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common condition affecting the joints. Dr Lee Eu Jin, an Orthopaedic Surgeon from Liberty Orthopaedic Clinic at Mount Elizabeth Medical Centre, Singapore, shares his insights with Pearl Toh on how to manage OA in the primary care setting.