Hepatitis B is transmitted through perinatal, percutaneous, sexual, and close person-to-person contact, ie by open cuts and sores.
Human hepatitis B virus belongs to the family of Hepadnaviridae of small, enveloped, primarily hepatotropic DNA viruses. The virus replicates in the host and assembles exclusively in the hepatocytes and virions are released non-cytopathically through the cellular secretory pathway.
Chronic hepatitis B is defined as a chronic necroinflammatory liver disease due to persistent hepatitis B virus infection.
Hepatitis D infection is found only in patients with hepatitis B as it requires the hepatitis B outer coat. It is transmitted through sexual and percutaneous (especially IV drug use) routes.
Hepatitis B and D both have an incubation period of 30-180 days.
The combination therapy comprising carfilzomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (KCd) is effective, with a tolerable safety profile, in an Asian cohort with high-risk multiple myeloma (MM) — thus providing a more economical alternative as a potential upfront regimen in resource-limited settings, according to leading experts during a myeloma education webinar.
Extremes of sleep duration (≤5 or ≥10 hours/day), which is a known mortality risk factor in the general population, may increase absolute mortality in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a prospective study has shown.
Insulin icodec, an in-development basal insulin analogue administered once weekly, was as effective as once-daily insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) insufficiently controlled with metformin with or without a DPP-4* inhibitor, according to a phase II trial presented at EASD 2020.