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HEPATITIS A & E

Hepatitis A route of transmission is through oral-fecal route while in hepatitis E, aside from the oral-fecal route, it is also transmitted through blood transfusion in endemic areas.

Hepatitis A incubation period is 15-50 days and hepatitis E incubation period is 15-60 days.

Hepatitis A & E viruses cause epidemics.

 

Hepatitis A & E References

  1. Rudolph A, Wang G, Sherman KE, et al. Therapeutic strategies for liver disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Jul;2(7):003-12.
  2. Ryder SD, Beckingham IJ. ABC of diseases of liver, pancreas and biliary system: acute hepatitis. BMJ. 2001 Jan;322(7279):151-153. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=11159575. PMID: 11159575
  3. Wedemeyer H, Pischke S, Manns MP. Pathogenesis and treatment of hepatitis E virus infection. Gastroenterology. 2012 May;142(6):1388-1397. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22537448. PMID: 22537448
  4. Rutherford AE. Acute viral hepatitis. Merck Manual; 2013 Mar. http://www.merckmanuals.com/. Accessed 02 Oct 2013.
  5. National Guideline Clearinghouse. Association for Genitourinary Medicine, Medical Society for the Study of Venereal Disease. Complete summary of 2002 national guideline on the management of viral hepatitides A, B, C. http://www.guideline.gov.
  6. Umashanker R, Chopra S. Hepatitis E virus infection. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/index. May 2012. Accessed 03 Aug 2012.
  7. College of Paediatrics, Academy of Medicine Malaysia. Malaysian immunisation manual. http://www.acadmed.org.my/. 2001.
  8. Cheney CP. Overview of hepatitis A virus infection in adults. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/index. 05 Apr 2012. Accessed 03 Aug 2012.
  9. Wolf DC. Viral hepatitis. eMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/. 2004.
  10. Lim SG, Aghemo A, Chen PJ, et al. Management of hepatitis C virus infection in the Asia-Pacific region: an update. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Jan;2(1):52-62. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(16)30080-2. PMID: 28404015
  11. Petruzziello A, Marigliano S, Loquercio G, et al. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: an up-date of the distribution and circulation of hepatitis C virus genotypes. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Sep 14;22(34):7824-7840. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i34.7824. PMID: 27678366
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adult immunization schedule. Recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older, by vaccine and age group, United States, 2017. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines. 06 Feb 2017.
  13. British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC). Communicable disease control: Hepatitis A. BCCDC. http://www.bccdc.ca/. Dec 2018.
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral hepatitis: hepatitis A. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/. Jul 2020.
  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral hepatitis: hepatitis E. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/. Sep 2020.
  16. Doshani M, Weng M, Moore KL, Romero JR, Nelson NP. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for use of hepatitis A vaccine for persons experiencing homelessness. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Feb;68(6):153-156. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6806a6. PMID: 30763295
  17. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines on hepatitis E virus infection. J Hepatol. 2018 Jun;68(6):1256-1271. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2018.03.005. PMID: 29609832
  18. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Hepatitis E. ECDC. https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/. Jun 2017.
  19. Matheny SC, Kingery JE. Hepatitis A. Am Fam Physician. 2012 Dec;86(11):1027-1034. PMID: 23198670
  20. Nelson NP, Link-Gelles R, Hofmeister MG, et al. Update: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for use of hepatitis A vaccine for postexposure prophylaxis and for preexposure prophylaxis for international travel. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Nov;67(43):1216-1220. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6743a5. PMID: 30383742
  21. Nelson NP, Weng MK, Hofmeister MG, et al. Prevention of hepatitis A virus infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2020. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2020 Jul;69(5):1-38. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.rr6905a1. PMID: 32614811
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