hepatitis%20a%20-and-%20e
HEPATITIS A & E

Hepatitis A route of transmission is through oral-fecal route. While in hepatitis E, aside from the oral-fecal route, it is also transmitted through blood transfusion in endemic areas.

Hepatitis A incubation period is 15-50 days and hepatitis E incubation period is 21-60 days.

Hepatitis A & E viruses cause epidemics.

 

  1. Rudolph A, Wang G, Sherman KE, et al. Therapeutic strategies for liver disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Jul;2(7):003-12.
  2. Ryder SD, Beckingham IJ. ABC of diseases of liver, pancreas and biliary system: acute hepatitis. BMJ. 2001 Jan;322(7279):151-153. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=11159575. PMID: 11159575
  3. Wedemeyer H, Pischke S, Manns MP. Pathogenesis and treatment of hepatitis E virus infection. Gastroenterology. 2012 May;142(6):1388-1397. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22537448. PMID: 22537448
  4. Rutherford AE. Acute viral hepatitis. Merck Manual; 2013 Mar. http://www.merckmanuals.com/. Accessed 02 Oct 2013.
  5. National Guideline Clearinghouse. Association for Genitourinary Medicine, Medical Society for the Study of Venereal Disease. Complete summary of 2002 national guideline on the management of viral hepatitides A, B, C. http://www.guideline.gov.
  6. Umashanker R, Chopra S. Hepatitis E virus infection. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/index. May 2012. Accessed 03 Aug 2012.
  7. College of Paediatrics, Academy of Medicine Malaysia. Malaysian immunisation manual. http://www.acadmed.org.my/. 2001.
  8. Cheney CP. Overview of hepatitis A virus infection in adults. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/index. 05 Apr 2012. Accessed 03 Aug 2012.
  9. Wolf DC. Viral hepatitis. eMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/. 2004.
  10. Lim SG, Aghemo A, Chen PJ, et al. Management of hepatitis C virus infection in the Asia-Pacific region: an update. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Jan;2(1):52-62. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(16)30080-2. PMID: 28404015
  11. Petruzziello A, Marigliano S, Loquercio G, et al. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: an up-date of the distribution and circulation of hepatitis C virus genotypes. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Sep 14;22(34):7824-7840. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i34.7824. PMID: 27678366
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adult immunization schedule. Recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older, by vaccine and age group, United States, 2017. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines. 06 Feb 2017.
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Gastroenterology - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
4 days ago
Children with high dental anxiety are more likely to develop dental diseases, which, in turn, negatively affect the family’s quality of life, a recent study has found.
2 days ago
Exposure to corticosteroids in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) appears to contribute to increased risks of cataract, diabetes and bone fractures, a study has found. Notably, the fracture risk is elevated at low doses, while the risk of adverse events overall is dose-dependent and is reversible.
14 Nov 2019
In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD), rivaroxaban monotherapy is noninferior to combination treatment with an antiplatelet therapy in terms of cutting the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality, according to data from the AFIRE trial.
4 days ago
Supplementation with oral nano vitamin D appears to moderate disease activity and severity grade of patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC), suggests a study, adding that this association is more evident in those achieving a target vitamin D level of 40 ng/mL.