hemorrhoids
HEMORRHOIDS
Hemorrhoids are swollen and inflamed vascular structures or veins around the anus or in the lower rectum.
External hemorrhoids are located closer to the anal verge and are covered with squamous epithelium. It produces symptoms only when thrombosed or when they give rise to large skin tags which make hygiene difficult. Common symptoms are anal pain of acute onset and a palpable lump in the perianal area.
Internal hemorrhoids originate above the dentate line and are covered with rectal or transitional mucosa. It does not cause cutaneous pain. Prolapse of internal hemorrhoids may cause bleeding, mucus discharge, fecal soiling and anal pruritus.
  1. Cataldo P, Ellis N, Gregorcyk S, et al. Practice parameters for the management of hemorrhoids (revised). Dis Colon Rectum. 2005 Feb;48(2):189-194. PMID: 15711856
  2. Madoff RD, Fleshman JW; Clinical Practice Committee, American Gastroenterological Association. American Gastroenterological Association technical review on the diagnosis and treatment of hemorrhoids. Gastroenterology. 2004 May;126(5):1463-1473. PMID: 15131807
  3. Clinical Practice Committee, American Gastroenterological Association. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement: diagnosis and treatment of hemorrhoids. Gastroenterology. 2004 May;126(5):1461-1462. PMID: 15131806
  4. Feldman M, Friedman LS, Sleisenger MH, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran’s gastrointestinal and liver disease: pathophysiology/diagnosis/management. 7th ed. Pennsylvania: Saunders; 2002
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  6. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  7. Thornton S. Hemorrhoids. http://www.emedicine.com/. Dec 2004. Accessed 09 Jul 2005.
  8. The Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. SSAT patient care guidelines: surgical management of hemorrhoids. http://www.ssat.com/cgi-bin/hemorr.cgi. Accessed 09 Jul 2005
  9. Ganz RA. The evaluation and treatment of hemorrhoids: a guide for the gastroenterologist. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Jun;11(6):593-603. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2012.12.020. Accessed 11 Mar 2014. PMID: 23333220
  10. Rivadeneira DE, Steele SR, Ternent C, Chalasani S, Buie WD, Rafferty JL; Standards Practice Task Force of The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Practice parameters for the management of hemorrhoids (revised 2010). Dis Colon Rectum. 2011 Sep;54(9):1059-1064. doi: 10.1097/DCR.0b013e318225513d. Accessed 11 Mar 2014. PMID: 21825884
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