growth%20hormone%20deficiency%20(pediatric)
GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY (PEDIATRIC)
Growth hormone deficiency is a congenital or an acquired growth hormone axis disruption in the higher brain, hypothalamus or pituitary which results in short stature.
It may occur at any age.
Short stature is often the only feature present in patients with growth hormone deficiency and other causes of subnormal growth rate.
Etiology may be congenital conditions (eg defective pituitary development that leads to pituitary aplasia, empty sella, encephalocele, midline defects) or acquired conditions (eg tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary region, cranial irradiation, infiltrative disease).
  1. Gharib H, Cook DM, Saenger PH, et al; American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Growth Hormone Task Force. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for growth hormone use in adults and children - 2003 update. Endocr Pract. 2003 Jan;9(1):64-76. doi: 10.4158/EP.9.1.64. PMID: 12917095
  2. Growth Hormone Research Society. Consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone (GH) deficiency in childhood and adolescence: summary statement of the GH Research Society. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Nov;85(11):3990-3993. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jcem.85.11.6984. PMID: 11095419
  3. Saenger P. Growth hormone in growth hormone deficiency: start treatment early and give it for long enough. Br Med J. 2002 Jul;325(7355):58-59. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1123623/pdf/58.pdf. PMID: 12114222
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  8. Growth hormone deficiency. Children’s hospital of Wisconsin. http://www.chw.org/display/PPF/DocID/22653/router.asp
  9. Eledrisi MS. Growth hormone deficiency. eMedicine. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/120767-overview. Jun 2008
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  11. Backeljauw PF, Dattani MT, Cohen P, Rosenfeld RG. Disorders of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor secretion and action. In: Perling MA. Pediatric Endocrinology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, Elsevier Inc; 2014.
  12. Bladowska J, Zak T, Zimny A, et al. Assessment of metabolic changes within normal appearing gray and white matter in children with growth hormone deficiency: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and hormonal correlation. Brain Dev. 2014 Oct;36(9):770-777. http://www.brainanddevelopment.com/article/S0387-7604(13)00311-2/pdf. PMID: 24360094
  13. Cook DM, Yuen KC, Biller BM, Kemp SF, Vance ML; American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for growth hormone use in growth hormone-deficient adults and transition patients - 2009 update. Endocr Pract. 2009 Sep;15(Suppl 2):1-29. https://www.aace.com/files/growth-hormone-guidelines.pdf. Accessed 20 May 2014. PMID: 20228036
  14. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Human growth hormone (somatropin) for the treatment of growth failure in children. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. https://beta.nice.org.uk/resourcefile/s5fnhql657avapwcx27 bbwwwqm. May 2010. Accessed 20 May 2014.
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  16. Allen DB, Backeljauw P, Bidlingmaier M, et al. GH safety workshop position paper: a critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults. Eur J Endocrinol. 2016 Feb;174(2):P1-P9. http://www.eje-online.org/content/174/2/P1.full.pdf. PMID: 26563978
  17. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Growth hormone therapy and increased incidence of stroke. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) website. https://www.aace.com/files/statement-from-aace.pdf. Sep 2014.
  18. de Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Garza C, Yang H; WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. Comparison of the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards and the National Center for Health Statistics/WHO international growth reference: implications for child health programmes. Public Health Nutr. 2006 Oct;9(7):942-947. http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FPHN%2FPHN9_07%2FS1368980006001534a.pdf&code=92bd3b4a39218dd4c3e652438a6bb5dd. PMID: 17010261
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  20. Rogol AD. Treatment of growth hormone deficiency in children. UpToDate website. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-growth-hormone-deficiency-in-children?source=see_link. Jun 2015.
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  24. Ministry of Health Malaysia. Clinical practice guidelines: The use of growth hormone in children and adults. Ministry of Health Malaysia. http://www.moh.gov.my/. Nov 2010.
  25. Rogol AD, Richmond EJ. Treatment of growth hormone deficiency in children. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/. Nov 2017.
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