Growth hormone deficiency is a congenital or an acquired growth hormone axis disruption in the higher brain, hypothalamus or pituitary which results in short stature.
It may occur at any age.
Short stature is often the only feature present in patients with growth hormone deficiency and other causes of subnormal growth rate.
Etiology may be congenital conditions (eg defective pituitary development that leads to pituitary aplasia, empty sella, encephalocele, midline defects) or acquired conditions (eg tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary region, cranial irradiation, infiltrative disease).
Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy increased left ventricular (LV) mass and improved metabolic parameters in prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), according to a study from Spain.
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In patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) receiving angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, high dosing confers benefits for the risk of death or hospitalization that are similar to that obtained with lower dosing, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis.