Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that results into overproduction of thyroid hormones.
Thyrotoxicosis signs and symptoms include hyperactivity, irritability, insomnia, dysphoria, sweating, heat intolerance, palpitations, weakness, fatigue, weight loss despite increased appetite, diarrhea, steatorrhea polyuria, decreased libido, tachycardia, tremor, goiter, alopecia, gynecomastia, eyelid lag or retraction and rarely periodic paralysis.
Clinical features in thyrotoxic patient that suggests Graves's disease are ophthalmopathy, thyroid dermopathy, thyroid acropachy, diffuse goiter, antibodies to thyroid peroxidase or thyroglobulin and thyroid radionuclide scan demonstrating a diffuse goiter.

Graves' Ophthalmopathy

Mild/Moderate Disease
Non-pharmacological Therapy
  • Maintain euthyroid state
  • Smoking cessation
  • Avoid: Bright light, dust
  • Sleep w/ head elevated
  • Apply artificial tears & simple eye oint at night
Pharmacological therapy
  • Diuretic therapy
Severe Disease
  • Diplopia, optic neuropathy, or exposure keratitis
Non-pharmacological Therapy
  • Surgical decompression of orbits
  • Radiotherapy
Pharmacological therapy
  • Glucocorticoids
    • Oral Prednisolone or
    • Pulse IV Methylprednisolone
  • Cyclosporine
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Endocrinology - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
3 days ago
Green tea consumption is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and this association shows a dose-response pattern, according to the results of two large-scale population-based cohorts of Chinese men and women.