graves'%20disease
GRAVES' DISEASE
Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that results into overproduction of thyroid hormones.
Thyrotoxicosis signs and symptoms include hyperactivity, irritability, insomnia, dysphoria, sweating, heat intolerance, palpitations, weakness, fatigue, weight loss despite increased appetite, diarrhea, steatorrhea polyuria, decreased libido, tachycardia, tremor, goiter, alopecia, gynecomastia, eyelid lag or retraction and rarely periodic paralysis.
Clinical features in thyrotoxic patient that suggests Graves's disease are ophthalmopathy, thyroid dermopathy, thyroid acropachy, diffuse goiter, antibodies to thyroid peroxidase or thyroglobulin and thyroid radionuclide scan demonstrating a diffuse goiter.

Graves' Ophthalmopathy

Mild/Moderate Disease
Non-pharmacological Therapy
  • Maintain euthyroid state
  • Smoking cessation
  • Avoid: Bright light, dust
  • Sleep w/ head elevated
  • Apply artificial tears & simple eye oint at night
Pharmacological therapy
  • Diuretic therapy
Severe Disease
  • Diplopia, optic neuropathy, or exposure keratitis
Non-pharmacological Therapy
  • Surgical decompression of orbits
  • Radiotherapy
Pharmacological therapy
  • Glucocorticoids
    • Oral Prednisolone or
    • Pulse IV Methylprednisolone
  • Cyclosporine
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Endocrinology - Malaysia digital copy today!
DOWNLOAD
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
01 Jan 2016
The thyroid gland was hypovascular, coarse,  hyperechoic, and had substantially decreased in mean total volume among Graves' hyperthyroidism patients following radioiodine therapy, based on a study
3 days ago
Global hypomethylation of Alu appears to increasingly influence distant metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), poorly (P)DTC and anaplastic (A)TC, according to a recent study. This suggests that the epigenetic entity may be involved in thyroid cancer progression and dedifferentiation.
01 Nov 2015
Increased serum prolidase levels in Grave's disease patients without ophthalmopathy signs are positively associated with oxidative stress parameters as shown in a study.
01 Dec 2013
This is a global review of the diagnosis and management of Graves disease.