graves'%20disease
GRAVES' DISEASE
Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that results into overproduction of thyroid hormones.
Thyrotoxicosis signs and symptoms include hyperactivity, irritability, insomnia, dysphoria, sweating, heat intolerance, palpitations, weakness, fatigue, weight loss despite increased appetite, diarrhea, steatorrhea polyuria, decreased libido, tachycardia, tremor, goiter, alopecia, gynecomastia, eyelid lag or retraction and rarely periodic paralysis.
Clinical features in thyrotoxic patient that suggests Graves's disease are ophthalmopathy, thyroid dermopathy, thyroid acropachy, diffuse goiter, antibodies to thyroid peroxidase or thyroglobulin and thyroid radionuclide scan demonstrating a diffuse goiter.

Graves' Disease References

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  2. Bartalena SJ, Marcocci C, Bogazzi F, et al. Relation between therapy for hyperthyroidism and the course of graves' ophthalmopathy. N Engl J Med. 1998 Jan;338(2):73-78. PMID: 9420337
  3. McKenna TJ. Graves' disease. Lancet. 2001 Jun;357(9270):1793-1796. PMID: 11403836
  4. Bonnema SJ, Bartelena L, Toft AD, et al. Controversies in radioiodine therapy: relation to ophthalmopathy, the possible radioprotective effect of antithyroid drugs, and use in large goiters. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002 Jul;147(1):001-11. PMID: 12088914
  5. Meier DA, Brill DR, Becker DV, et al. Procedure guideline for therapy of thyroid disease with (131)iodine. J Nucl Med. 2002 Jun;43(6):856-861. PMID: 12050333
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  13. Bahn Chair RS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al, American Thyroid Association, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Thyroid. 2011 Jun;21(6):593-646. https://www.aace.com/files/hyper-guidelines-2011.pdf. PMID: 21510801
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  15. Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. 2016 American Thyroid Association guidelines for diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid. 2016 Oct;26(10):1343-1421. doi: 10.1089/thy.2016.0229. Accessed 22 Jun 2018. PMID: 27521067
  16. Bartalena L, Baldeschi L, Boboridis K, et al. The 2016 European Thyroid Association/European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy guidelines for the management of Graves' orbitopathy. Eur Thyroid J. 2016 Mar;5(1):9-26. doi: 10.1159/000443828. PMID: 27099835
  17. Campbell K, Doogue M. Evaluating and managing patients with thyrotoxicosis. Aust Fam Physician. 2012 Aug;41(8):564-572. PMID: 23145395
  18. Davies TF, Burch HB. Clinical features and diagnosis of Graves’ orbitopathy (ophthalmopathy). UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Feb 2018.
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  20. Davies TF. Pathogenesis of Graves’ disease. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Nov 2017.
  21. Kahaly GJ, Bartalena L, Hegedüs L, et al. 2018 European Thyroid Association guideline for the management of Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Eur Thyroid J. 2018 Aug;7(4):167-186. doi: 10.1159/000490384. PMID: 30283735
  22. Ross DS, Sugg SL. Surgical management of hyperthyroidism. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Sep 2018.
  23. Ross DS. Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Oct 2017.
  24. Ross DS. Graves’ hyperthyroidism in nonpregnant adults: overview of treatment. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. 28 Jul 2020. Accessed 6 Oct 2020.
  25. Ross DS. Overview of the clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism in adults. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Mar 2018.
  26. Ross DS. Radioiodine in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Aug 2018.
  27. Ross DS. Thionamides in the treatment of Graves’ disease. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Sep 2018.
  28. Ross DS. Thyroid Storm. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Jan 2019.
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  32. British Association of Endocrine & Thyroid Surgeons (BAETS). Guidelines for the surgical management of endocrine disease and training requirements for endocrine surgery. BAETS. http://www.baets.org.uk. 2003.
  33. Mumtaz M, Lin LS, Hui KC, et al. Radioiodine I-31 for the therapy of Grave’s disease. Malays J Med Sci. 2009 Jan;16(1):25-33.
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  35. Malaysian Endocrine and Metabolic Society (MEMS). Clinical practice guidelines: management of thyroid disorders. MEMS. http://www.mems.my/. 2019. Accessed 5 Oct 2020.
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