gout
GOUT
Gout is a condition that resulted from deposition of monosodium urate crystals in various tissues (eg joints, connective tissue, kidney).
The patient experiences acute and chronic arthritis, soft tissue inflammation, tophus formation, gouty nephropathy and nephrolithiasis.
Primary hyperuricemia is called when uric acid saturation arises without coexisting diseases or drugs that alter uric acid production and excretion.
While in secondary hyperuricemia there is an excessive uric acid production or diminished renal clearance that occurs as a result of a disease, drug, dietary product or toxin.
  1. Khanna D, Fitzgerald JD, Khanna PP, et al. 2012 American College of Rheumatology guidelines for management of gout. Part 1: systematic nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapeutic approaches to hyperuricemia. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012 Oct;64(10):1431-1446. doi: 10.1002/acr.21772. PMID: 23024028
  2. Schlesinger N. Diagnosis of gout: clinical, laboratory and radiologic finding. Am J Manag Care. 2005 Nov;11(Suppl 15):443-S450. PMID: 16300458
  3. Khanna D, Khanna PP, Fitzgerald JD, et al. 2012 American College of Rheumatology guidelines for management of gout. Part 2: therapy and antiinflammatory prophylaxis of acute gouty arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012 Oct;64(10):1447-1461. doi: 10.1002/acr.21773. PMID: 23024029
  4. Choi, HK. A prescription for lifestyle change in patients with hyperuricemia and gout. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2010 Mar;22(2):165-172. doi: 10.1097/BOR.0b013e328335ef38. PMID: 20035225
  5. Tausche A, Jansen T, Schroder H, et al. Gout - current diagnosis and treatment. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2009 Aug;106:549-555. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2009.0549. PMID: 19795010
  6. Wallace SL, Robinson H, Masi AT, et al. Preliminary criteria for the classification of acute arthritis of primary gout. Arthritis Rheum. 1977 Apr;20(3):895-900. PMID: 856219
  7. Zhang W, Doherty M, Bardin T, et al. EULAR evidence based recommendations for gout. Part II: Management. Report of a task force of the EULAR Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies including Therapeutics (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis. 2006 Oct;65(10):1312-1324. PMID: 16707532
  8. Zhang W, Doherty M, Pascual E, et al. EULAR evidence based recommendations for gout. Part I: Diagnosis. Report of a task force of the standing committee for international clinical studies including therapeutics (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis. 2006 Oct;65(10):1301-1311. PMID: 16707533
  9. Wortmann RL. Gout and hyperuricemia. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Harris ED Jr, et al. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, Elsevier; 2008.
  10. Jordan J, Cameron S, Snaith M, et al. British Society for Rheumatology and British Health Professionals in Rheumatology Guideline for the Management of Gout. http://www.mdconsult.com. 2007. Accessed 10 Jan 2012.
  11. Becker M. Clinical manifestation and diagnosis of gout. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed 20 Jan 2012
  12. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Pegloticase for treating severe chronic tophaceous gout. NICE. http://publications.nice.org.uk/pegloticase-for-treating-severe-debilitating-chronic-tophaceous-gout-ta291/about-this-guidance. Jun 2013.
  13. Becker M. Treatment of acute gout. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com.Accessed 10 Jan 2012
  14. Perez-Ruiz F, Dalbeth N, Urresola A, et al. Imaging of gout: findings and utility. Arthritis Research and Therapy. http://www.medscape.com. 2009. Accessed 10 Jan 2012
  15. Malaysian Society of Rheumatology. Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management of gout. http://www.acadmed.org.my. Oct 2008.
  16. Becker MA. Treatment of acute gout. UptoDate website. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-acute-gout. Jun 2016.
  17. Li-Yu J, Salido EO, Manahan S, et al; in behalf of the Philippine Rheumatology Association. Philippine clinical practice guideline for the management of gout. Philippine College of Physicians (PCP) website. http://www.pcp.org.ph/documents/CPGs/PRA/Gout%20CPG%20Manuscript%20_PJIM%20072808_.pdf. 2016.
  18. Neogi T, Jansen TL, Dalbeth N, et al. 2015 Gout classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Oct;67(10):2557-2568. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/art.39254/epdf. PMID: 26352873
  19. Hui M, Carr A, Cameron S, et al. The British Society for Rheumatology guideline for the management of gout. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017 Jul;56(7):e1-e20. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kex156. PMID: 28549177
  20. Paul BJ, James R. Gout: an Asia-Pacific update. Int J Rheum Dis. 2017 Apr;20(4):408-416. doi: 10.1111/1756-185X.13103. PMID: 28585370
  21. Qaseem A, Harris RP, Forciea MA. Management of acute and recurrent gout: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jan;166(1):58-68. doi: 10.7326/M16-0570. PMID: 27802508
  22. Chohan S. Gout and hyperuricemia. In: Kellerman R, Bope E. Conn's Current Therapy 2018; 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-52769-9.00061-1. :281-284.
  23. Edwards NL. Crystal deposition diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer A. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th edition; 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4557-5017-7.00273-7. :1811-1816.e2.
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Rheumatology digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Tristan Manalac, 14 Mar 2019
Atopic dermatitis appears to impair sleep quality, but not sleep duration, in children, particularly in those with more severe diseases, according to a new study.
Jairia Dela Cruz, 3 days ago
Use of mirabegron in the treatment of men with overactive bladder (OAB) appears to effectively alleviate urgency and storage symptoms, but not reduce the frequency of micturition episodes, according to data from the MIRACLE study.
5 days ago
Drinking coffee confers benefits for recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and survival following orthotopic liver transplantation, a study has found.
6 days ago
A recent study has shown that the short-term efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is superior to entecavir (ETV) for the treatment of acute-on-chronic-liver failure (ACLF) due to reactivation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB).