Gout is a condition that resulted from deposition of monosodium urate crystals in various tissues (eg joints, connective tissue, kidney).
The patient experiences acute and chronic arthritis, soft tissue inflammation, tophus formation, gouty nephropathy and nephrolithiasis.
Primary hyperuricemia occurs when uric acid saturation arises without coexisting diseases or drugs that alter uric acid production or excretion, while secondary hyperuricemia is a condition where excessive uric acid production or diminished renal clearance occurs as a result of a disease, drug, dietary product or toxin.
Intake of sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice appears to increase the risk of developing gout, and this adverse association does not extend to fruit consumption, according to the results of a meta-analysis.
Biweekly treatment with pegloticase yields favourable effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as mean arterial pressure in gout patients who maintain a persistently low serum urate, and these effects are independent of changes in renal function, according to a posthoc analysis of two trials.
Eating fish rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) leads to a lower risk of recurrent gout attacks, a study has found. On the other hand, n-3 PUFA supplements such as fish oil and cod liver oil do not confer the same benefit.
Febuxostat does not appear to be more cardiotoxic than allopurinol in the treatment of elderly gout patients with or without cardiovascular comorbidities, according to a recent study. Neither drug is associated with elevated risks of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality.
Both the extended- and immediate-release formulations of febuxostat are effective and well tolerated in the treatment of gout patients with normal or impaired renal function, according to the results of a phase III trial.
A robust association exists between crystal-proven gout and increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a recent study has found. Additionally, characteristic gout severity factors correlate with CVD in patients with gout.
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) experienced reductions in plasma uric acid concentrations and subsequently, fewer gout events following treatment with fenofibrate, according to a post hoc analysis of the FIELD* trial.
Diabetes is a key risk factor for heart failure (HF), which is the leading cause of hospitalization in patients with or without diabetes. SGLT-2* inhibitors (SGLT-2is) have been shown to reduce the risk of hospitalization for HF (HHF) regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes.