gonorrhea%20-%20uncomplicated%20anogenital%20infection
GONORRHEA - UNCOMPLICATED ANOGENITAL INFECTION
Gonorrhea is a sexually or vertically transmitted infection secondary to Gram-negative diplococcus Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
It is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections that may cause pelvic inflammatory disease leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy.
Most of the infected females are asymptomatic but may present with increased or altered vaginal discharge, dysuria, urethral discharge, abnormal vaginal bleeding, vulval itching or burning, dyspareunia, conjunctivitis and proctitis.
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  2. Barry PM, Klausner JD. The use of cephalosporins for gonorrhea: the impending problem of resistance. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009 Mar;10(4):555-577. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed 23 Jun 2010. PMID: 19284360
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update to CDC's sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006: fluoroquinolones no longer recommended for treatment of gonococcal infections. MMWR. 2007 Apr;56(14):332-336. http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed 23 Jun 2010. PMID: 17431378
  4. Hollier LM, Workowski K. Treatment of sexually transmitted infections in women. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008 Dec;22(4):665-691. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2008.05.009. PMID: 18954758
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  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update to CDC's sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010: oral cephalosporins no longer a recommended treatment for gonoccocal infections. MMWR. 2012 Aug;61(31):590-594. http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed 17 Sep 2012. PMID: 22874837
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  8. Moran JS, Newman LM, Workowski KA. Update on the management of gonorrhea in adults in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Apr;44(Suppl 3):S84-S101. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu. Accessed 01 Jul 2010. PMID: 17342672
  9. World Health Organization. Guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections. Geneva: WHO. 2001
  10. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for gonorrhea: recommendation statement. Ann Fam Med. 2005 May;3(3)(Suppl 3):263-267. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed 23 Jun 2010. PMID: 15928231
  11. Radcliffe K. European STD guidelines. Int J STD AIDS. 2001 Oct;12(Suppl 3):1-102. http://www.iusti.org. PMID: 11589789
  12. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Dermatology/12/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Dermatology.xml
  13. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/OBGYN/29/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/OBGYN.xml
  14. National Guideline Clearinghouse. (1) Diseases characterized by urethritis and cervicitis. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2006. (2) Update to CDC’s sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006: fluoroquinolones no longer recommended for treatment of gonococcal infections. http://www.guideline.gov. Accessed 21 Jun 2010.
  15. Expert Working Group on Canadian Guidelines for Sexually Transmitted Infections. Canadian guidelines on sexually transmitted infections: gonorrhea. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca. Accessed 01 Jul 2010.
  16. World Health Organization. Guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections. WHO. http://apps.who.int. 2004.
  17. Ministry of Health Singapore. Management of genital ulcers and discharges. MOH (Singapore). http://www.moh.gov.sg. 2009. Accessed 21 Jun 2010.
  18. Behrman AJ, Shoff WH. Gonorrhea. eMedicine. http://emedicine.medscape.com. 12 Nov 2009. Accessed 29 Mar 2010.
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. STD fact sheet: gonorrhea. CDC. http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed 21 Jun 2010.
  20. Bignell C, Fitzgerald M, Clinical Effectiveness Group British Association for Sexual Health and HIV. UK National guideline for the management of gonorrhea in adults. http://www.bashh.org. Jun 2011. Accessed 17 Sep 2010.
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  28. Janda WM. Emerging extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Clinical Microbiology Newsletter. 2016 Jan 15;38(2):9-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinmicnews.2015.12.006.
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  31. Alirol E, Wi TE, Bala M, et al. Multi-drug-resistant gonorrhea: a research & development roadmap to discover new medicines. World Health Organization (WHO). http://www.who.int. 2017.
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  33. Fifer H, Saunders J, Soni S, et al. British Association for Sexual Health and HIV national guideline for the management of infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (2019). BASHH. https://www.bashh.org. 2019.
  34. Swygard H, Sena AC, Cohen MS. Treatment of uncomplicated Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. 20 Nov 2018.
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