Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.
Hyperglycemia in pregnancy may be suggested by the presence of glycosuria, a fetus that is large for date, or polyhydramnios.
Overt diabetes mellitus may be found in women presenting with risk factors for type 2 diabetes during the first prenatal visit (before 13 weeks of gestation).
Gestational diabetes and abnormal glucose levels in pregnancy, as determined with an oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) at 24–28 weeks gestation, could signal a future risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD)*, according to a recent study.
Metformin continues to protect high-risk individuals from developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) over 15 years, especially among those with higher glycaemic status at baseline and women reporting a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), according to long-term results from DPP/DPPOS*.
A lifestyle intervention combining dietary and physical activity counselling initiated during early pregnancy does not appear to effectively improve dietary intake, physical activity, or obstetric and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women at high risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, according to data from the RADIEL trial.
High levels of physical activity during pregnancy, especially moderate-intensity and household/caregiving activities, may lower the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, as shown in a study from Vietnam.
Women with pre-eclampsia or gestational hypertension during their first pregnancy had an increased risk of developing chronic hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and hypercholesterolaemia than those who were normotensive during pregnancy, according to a study. The risk persisted for several decades later, signalling these hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) as red flags for cardiovascular (CV) health for life.
Elevated levels of the free thyroid hormone T3 (fT3) and a higher fT3/fT4 ratio in early pregnancy may point to a greater risk of developing gestational diabetes (GDM), according to a recent US-based study.
Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) or hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) were threefold more likely than those without these conditions to develop abnormal glucose metabolism or high blood pressure (BP), respectively after delivery, according to the GUSTO* study.
Systolic blood pressure appears to have a strong association with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) but not with unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA), whereas current smoking and female sex are risk factors for both conditions, a study has found.