Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.
Hyperglycemia in pregnancy may be suggested by the presence of glycosuria, a fetus that is large for date, or polyhydramnios.
Overt diabetes mellitus may be found in women presenting with risk factors for type 2 diabetes during the first prenatal visit (before 13 weeks of gestation).
Overweight or obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may fare well with metformin treatment, which is reported in a recent study to safely and effectively prevent excessive and promote adequate gestational weight gain (GWG) independent of age, body mass index (BMI) and timing of GDM diagnosis, among others.
Women who conceive singleton pregnancies following assisted reproductive technology (ART) may have a higher risk of developing gestational diabetes than those who conceive spontaneously, according to results of a systematic review and meta-analysis presented at EASD 2019.
Gestational diabetes and abnormal glucose levels in pregnancy, as determined with an oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) at 24–28 weeks gestation, could signal a future risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD)*, according to a recent study.
Metformin continues to protect high-risk individuals from developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) over 15 years, especially among those with higher glycaemic status at baseline and women reporting a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), according to long-term results from DPP/DPPOS*.
A lifestyle intervention combining dietary and physical activity counselling initiated during early pregnancy does not appear to effectively improve dietary intake, physical activity, or obstetric and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women at high risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, according to data from the RADIEL trial.
High levels of physical activity during pregnancy, especially moderate-intensity and household/caregiving activities, may lower the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, as shown in a study from Vietnam.
Women with pre-eclampsia or gestational hypertension during their first pregnancy had an increased risk of developing chronic hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and hypercholesterolaemia than those who were normotensive during pregnancy, according to a study. The risk persisted for several decades later, signalling these hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) as red flags for cardiovascular (CV) health for life.
Pregnant women with inadequate knowledge on health are more likely to have undesirable maternal outcomes during delivery and adverse outcomes in their offspring than those who were well informed, according to a large cohort study presented at SMFM 2020 Annual Pregnancy Meeting.