genital%20herpes
GENITAL HERPES
Genital herpes is a recurrent lifelong disease with no cure, caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV).
HSV-2 is usually the cause but HSV-1 may occur in up to 1/3 of new cases.
HSV-1 tends to cause fewer recurrences & milder disease than HSV-2.
The incubation period is 2 days-2 weeks after exposure.
  1. Drake S, Taylor S, Brown D, et al. Improving the care of patients with genital herpes. BMJ. 2000 Sep;321(7261):619-623. PMID: 10977846
  2. Beauman J. Genital herpes: a review. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Oct;72(8):1527-1534. PMID: 16273819
  3. Colgan R, Michocki R, Greisman, et al. Antiviral drugs in the immunocompetent host: part I. Treatment of hepatitis, cytomegalovirus, and herpes infections. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Feb;67(4):675, 757-762. PMID: 12613729
  4. Emmert DH. Treatment of common cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Mar;61(6):1697-1706, 1708. PMID: 10750877
  5. Kimberlin D, Rouse D. Genital herpes: clinical practice. N Engl J Med. 2004 May;350(19):1970-1977. PMID: 15128897
  6. Fatahzadeh M, Swartz, RA. Human herpes simplex virus infections: epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Nov;57(5):737-763. PMID: 17939933
  7. Workowski KA, Berman S, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted disease treatment guidelines, 2006. MMWR. 2006 Aug;55(RR-11):1-94. http://www.cdc.gov. PMID: 16888612
  8. O'Mahony C. Genital warts: current and future management options. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2005;6(4):239-243. PMID: 16060711
  9. Wilson SS, Fakioglu E, Herold BC. Novel approaches in fighting herpes simplex virus infections. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2009 Jun;7(5):559-568. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed 04 Oct 2010. PMID: 19485796
  10. Mell HK. Management of oral and genital herpes in the emergency department. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2008 May;26(2):457-473. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2008.02.001. PMID: 18406983
  11. Yeung-Yue KA, Brentjens MH, Lee PC, et al. Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2. Dermatol Clin. 2002 Apr;20(2):249-266. PMID: 12120439
  12. Nath AK, Thappa DM. Newer trends in the management of genital herpes. Indian J Dermatol Venerol Leprol. 2009 Dec;75(6):566-574. doi: 10.4103/0378-6323.57716. PMID: 19915235
  13. Gilbert DN, Moellering RC, Eliopoulos GM, et al. The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy. 37th ed. Sperryville, VA: Antimicrobial Therapy Inc; 2007
  14. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Inc; 2005
  15. MedWorm http://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Dermatology/12/ http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Dermatology-News.xml
  16. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/OBGYN/29/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/OBGYN.xml
  17. Expert Working Group on Canadian Guidelines for Sexually Transmitted Infections. Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca. Jan 2008. Accessed 04 Oct 2010.
  18. Australian Herpes Management Forum (AHMF). Guidelines for clinicians managing genital herpes. http://www.ahmf.com.au. May 2009. Accessed 05 Oct 2010.
  19. Association of Genitourinary Medicine and the Medical Society for the Study of Venereal Diseases. National guidelines for the management of genital herpes. http://www.guideline.gov. 2001.
  20. British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Clinical Effectiveness Group. 2007 national guideline for the management of genital herpes. http://www.bashh.org. Accessed 04 Oct 2010.
  21. Patel R, Alderson S, Geretti A, et al. 2010 European guideline for the management of genital herpes. http://www.iusti.org. 2010. Accessed 04 Oct 2010.
  22. Ministry of Health Singapore. Management of genital ulcers and discharges. MOH (Singapore). http://www.moh.gov.sg. May 2009. Accessed 04 Oct 2010.
  23. Money D, Steben M. Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada clinical practice guideline. Genital herpes: gynaecological aspects. http://www.sogc.org. Apr 2008. Accessed 04 Oct 2010.
  24. New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute. Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV). http://www.hivguidelines.org. Oct 2007. Accessed 04 Oct 2010.
  25. National Centre for HIV, STD and TB Prevention. Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. STD prevention: genital herpes. http://www.cdc.gov. Jun 2001.
  26. Screening Guidelines Steering Committee of the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV, Clinical Effectiveness Group. Sexually transmitted infections screening and testing guidelines. http://www.bashh.org. Aug 2006. Accessed 06 Oct 2010.
  27. Lazaro N. Sexually transmitted infections in primary care 2013 (RCGP/BASHH). Royal College of General Practitioners. http://www.rcgp.org.uk. 2013. Accessed 30 May 2014.
  28. Ministry of Health Malaysia. National antibiotic guideline 2014, 2nd edition. Pharmaceutical Services Divisions, Ministry of Health Malaysia. http://www.pharmacy.gov.my. Dec 2014. Accessed 16 Jul 2015.
  29. Patel R, Kennedy OJ, Clarke E, et al. 2017 European guidelines for the management of genital herpes. International Union Against Sexually Transmitted Infections (IUSTI). http://www.iusti.org. 2017. Accessed 29 May 2017.
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Infectious Diseases - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
12 Jun 2019
Urogenital infections remain a major reason for women to visit their family physician and their subsequent referral to obstetrics and gynaecology or urology specialists. The association between abnormal vaginal microbiota and an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as an increased rate of preterm labour, indicates the need to better understand and manage urogenital health in women. Probiotics are “live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host”. As such, there is a sound rationale for using probiotics to maintain female vaginal and bladder health.