Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a disorder in which gastric contents recurrently reflux into the esophagus, causing troublesome symptoms and/or complications.
It is produced by various mechanisms such as frequent occurrence of transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter or pressure abnormalities in the lower esophageal sphincter (which can be caused by hormonal and neural mediators, food, drugs and patient lifestyle).
Typical symptoms are acid regurgitation and heartburn.
Regurgitation is the perception of flow of refluxed gastric contents into the mouth or hypopharynx.
Heartburn is defined as burning sensation in the retrosternal region.
Treatment with the novel acid secretion inhibitor vonoprazan at 10 mg effectively maintains remission through 52 weeks in patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-resistant reflux oesophagitis, according to the results of a trial from Japan.
Gastric bypass leads to a rapid reduction in reflux symptoms in severely obese patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), with the effect remaining stable for up to 10 years after the operation, according to a study. However, about half of the patients who receive the surgery may require continuous antireflux medication.
Duodenal eosinophilia carries up to a sixfold increased risk of developing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) over 10 years in individuals with functional dyspepsia (FD) and postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), a study has found.
The novel potassium‐competitive acid blocker tegoprazan at either 50 or 100 mg is noninferior to esomeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, in the treatment of erosive oesophagitis, with similar healing rates and adverse event incidences, according to the results of a phase III trial conducted in South Korea.
The potassium-competitive acid blocker vonoprazan demonstrates superior efficacy in the treatment of patients with erosive oesophagitis compared with the proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole, with the results of a small trial showing that the former more rapidly provides complete sustained heartburn relief during the first week of therapy.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) contributes to an increased risk of subsequent lacrimal drainage obstruction, and this association is evident among men and patients aged 40–59 years old, according to a study.
The Reflux Improvement and Monitoring (TRIM) programme for the management of patients with obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) appears to produce improvements in patient-reported symptom severity, quality of life and weight, a study reports.
Early enteral nutrition (EEN) speeds up the recovery of gastrointestinal function after laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE), according to a study. However, EEN also increases complications such as diarrhoea and abdominal distension.
Using a reduced computed tomography (CT) dose to diagnose appendicitis in adolescents and young adults does not appear to affect clinical outcomes, and could potentially reduce the long-term risk of radiation-related cancers, according to results of the LOCAT* trial.