Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a condition which results from the recurrent backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus and adjacent structures causing troublesome symptoms and/or tissue injury.
It is produced by various mechanisms such as frequent occurrence of transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter or pressure abnormalities in the lower esophageal sphincter (which can be caused by hormonal and neural mediators, food, drugs and patient lifestyle).
Typical symptoms are acid regurgitation and heartburn.
Acid regurgitation is the perception of flow of refluxed gastric contents into the mouth or hypopharynx.
Heartburn is the burning sensation in the retrosternal region.
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase susceptibility to osteoporotic fractures in elderly women as compared with histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), especially those who have used PPIs for at least a year, a recent study in Korea has found.
Use of the bile acid sequestrant IW-3718 as an adjunct to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy is well tolerated and reduces heartburn and regurgitation symptoms in patients with refractory gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), according to the results of a trial.
Patients with heartburn, which is related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and refractory to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), may fare better if they undergo fundoplication than medical treatment, according to a recent study.
Surgery may be a potential treatment for patients who have persistent heartburn due to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) despite treatment with proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), according to a recent study.
Treatment with the novel acid secretion inhibitor vonoprazan at 10 mg effectively maintains remission through 52 weeks in patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-resistant reflux oesophagitis, according to the results of a trial from Japan.
Monthly injections of the PCSK9* monoclonal antibody evolocumab effectively reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), often referred to as the bad cholesterol, in teenagers with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH) already taking statins, with or without ezetimibe, the HAUSER-RCT has shown.
For individuals with type 2 diabetes, losing weight is everything when it comes to improving the metabolic function, and it matters little whether this is achieved by dieting or undergoing bariatric surgery, according to a small study.