Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a disorder in which gastric contents recurrently reflux into the esophagus, causing troublesome symptoms and/or complications.
It is produced by various mechanisms such as frequent occurrence of transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter or pressure abnormalities in the lower esophageal sphincter (which can be caused by hormonal and neural mediators, food, drugs and patient lifestyle).
Typical symptoms are acid regurgitation and heartburn.
Regurgitation is the perception of flow of refluxed gastric contents into the mouth or hypopharynx.
Heartburn is defined as burning sensation in the retrosternal region.
The PD-1* inhibitor nivolumab showed significant survival benefit and a favourable safety profile than taxane chemotherapy in patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) refractory or intolerant to previous fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-based chemotherapy, according to the findings of ATTRACTION-3** presented at ESMO 2019.
Early enteral nutrition (EEN) speeds up the recovery of gastrointestinal function after laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE), according to a study. However, EEN also increases complications such as diarrhoea and abdominal distension.
A third of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) patients with cirrhosis have been readmitted in a span of 30 days primarily due to recurrent CDI, a recent study has found. In addition, there is a high rate of mortality linked to CDI in patients with cirrhosis, in which a poor prognosis is predicted by decompensation and 30-day readmission.