gastroesophageal%20reflux%20disease%20in%20children
GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE IN CHILDREN

Gastroesophageal reflux is categorized as a disease [gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)] when reflux is associated with warning signs &/or complications, & requires further evaluation.

It is more common in formula-fed infants than in purely breastfed infants.

There is increased incidence in infants at 4 months of age.

  1. American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. Pediatric GERD (gastro-esophageal reflux disease). AAO-HNS. http://www.entent.org. 2017.
  2. Baird DC, Harker DJ, Karmes AS. Diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in infants and children. Am Fam Physician. 2015 Oct;92(8):705-714. PMID: 26554410
  3. Goldani HA, Nunes DL, Ferreira CT. Managing gastroesophageal reflux disease in children: the role of endoscopy. World J Gastrointest Endosc. 2012 Aug;4(8):339-346. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v4.i8.339. PMID: 22912907
  4. Jackson HT, Kane TD. Surgical management of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2013;2013:863527. doi: 10.1155/2013/863527. PMID: 23762041
  5. Kavitt RT, Vaezi MF. Diseases of the esophagus. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al. Cummings Otorhynolaryngology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, Elsevier; 2015:993-1019.
  6. Khan S, Orenstein SR. Gastroesophageal reflux disease. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier, Inc; 2016:1787-1791.e1.
  7. Lightdale JR, Gremse DA; Section on Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Gastroesophageal reflux: management guidance for the pediatrician. Pediatrics. 2013 May;131(5):e1684-e1695. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-0421. PMID: 23629618
  8. Martin R, Hibbs AM. Gastroesophageal reflux in premature infants. UptoDate. http://www.uptodate.com. July 2016.
  9. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in children and young people: diagnosis and management. NICE. https://www.nice.org.uk/. Jan 2015.
  10. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Acid reflux in children and teens. NIH. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/. Apr 2015.
  11. Randel A. AAP releases guideline for the management of gastroesophageal reflux in children. Am Fam Physician. 2014 Mar;89(5):395-397. http://www.aafp.org/. PMID: 24695514
  12. Vandenplas Y, Rudolph CD, Di Lorenzo C, et al; North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition, European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition. Pediatric gastroesophageal reflux clinical practice guidelines: joint recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009 Oct;49(4):498-547. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e3181b7f563. PMID: 19745761
  13. Winter HS. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children and adolescents. UptoDate. http://www.uptodate.com. July 2016.
  14. Winter HS. Gastroesophageal reflux in infants. UptoDate. http://www.uptodate.com. July 2016.
  15. Winter HS. Management of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children and adolescents. UptoDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Nov 2016.
  16. Rosen R, Vandenplas Y, Singendonk M, et al. Pediatric gastroesophageal reflux clinical practice guidelines: joint recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2018 Mar;66(3):516-554. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001889. PMID: 29470322
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Stephen Padilla, 28 Feb 2018
The 2-year preventive oral health programme in Singapore has succeeded in lowering the presence of severe early childhood caries (SECC) among infants and toddlers, driven primarily by the implementation of targeted behaviour modifications, such as reducing the consumption of sweetened milk and increased use of fluoridated toothpaste, reports a study.