gastroenteritis%20-%20viral
GASTROENTERITIS - VIRAL
Acute gastroenteritis is a diarrheal disease of rapid onset.
Viruses are one of the common causes of gastroenteritis.
Rotavirus, enteric adenovirus serotypes 40 & 41, astrovirus and calicivirus (eg "Norwalk-like" virus) are the established viral agents causing gastroenteritis.
Rotavirus is the most common pathogen causing diarrhea in patients 3-24 months old.
Patients <3 months old are protected by maternal rotavirus antibodies that are passed transplacentally and possibly by breastfeeding.
Transmission is through fecal-oral route.
Incubation period may vary from 1-10 days depending on the causative agent.

Introduction

  • Acute gastroenteritis is a diarrheal disease of rapid onset
  • Viruses are one of the common causes of gastroenteritis

Etiology

  • Rotavirus, enteric adenovirus serotypes 40 & 41, astrovirus & calicivirus (eg “Norwalk-like” virus) are the established viral agents causing gastroenteritis
  • Rotavirus is the most common pathogen causing diarrhea in patients 3-24 months
  • Patients <3 months are protected by maternal rotavirus antibodies that are passed transplacentally & possibly by breastfeeding

Pathophysiology

  • Transmission is through fecal-oral route, through contaminated water, ingestion of inadequately cooked contaminated shellfish, close person-to-person contact & respiratory droplets
  • Incubation period may vary from 1-10 days depending on the causative agent

Signs and Symptoms

Clinical Features
  • Asymptomatic infection is common & asymptomatic excretion after illness may last for several weeks
  • Infection vary from mild watery diarrhea of limited duration to severe diarrhea with fever & vomiting that can result in dehydration
  • Extraintestinal sites involvement (respiratory tract, liver, kidney, lymph nodes & central nervous system) is common in immunocompromised patients
  • Dehydration & electrolyte imbalances are the main complications
Typical Symptoms
  • Watery, bloodless diarrhea (in severe cases, 10-20 bowel movements daily)
  • Fever
  • Nausea & vomiting
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Symptoms may persist for 3-8 days
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
6 days ago
Girls with eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) who show initial response to directed therapy will tend to continue to respond well to treatment, a recent study has shown.
Pearl Toh, 4 days ago
Adding a LAMA* to the double combination therapy of ICS** plus LABA*** in a single inhaler improves lung function and reduces exacerbations in patients whose asthma is inadequately controlled with the combination treatment, according to the TRIMARAN and TRIGGER# studies presented at ERS 2019.
Elvira Manzano, 5 days ago
Final overall survival (OS) results from the double-blind phase III FLAURA study reinforce osimertinib as the standard frontline treatment for epidermal growth factor receptor-mutated (EGFRm) non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), say leading oncologists at ESMO 2019.
Tristan Manalac, 4 days ago
Babies born to mothers exposed to high levels of bisphenol A during pregnancy are at a greater risk of wheezing and poor lung function, according to a new study presented at the recently concluded International Congress of the European Respiratory Society (ERS 2019).