gastroenteritis%20-%20parasitic
GASTROENTERITIS - PARASITIC
Frequently, patients with gastrointestinal parasitic infections do not have any signs and symptoms that are specific for parasitic infections (eg fever, malaise, fatigue, sweating, wt loss, anorexia, edema, pruritus).
Some patients may be asymptomatic.
Gastrointestinal symptoms, if present, include diarrhea, abdominal pain, dysentery, flatulence, jaundice, rectal prolapse, dyspepsia, malabsorption, vomiting and biliary colic. 

Introduction

  • Parasites causing gastrointestinal symptoms may be transmitted to humans via the fecal-oral route by food or water ingestion, or by skin penetration

Etiology

Parasites according to their mode of transmission

  • Soil-transmitted helminths: Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura
  • Food-borne trematodes: Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Fasciola hepatics, Paragonimus sp.
  • Water-borne parasites: Schistosoma haematobium/japonicum/mansoni, Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica

Signs and Symptoms

  • Frequently, patients w/ gastrointestinal parasitic infections do not have any signs & symptoms that are specific for parasitic infections (eg fever, malaise, fatigue, sweating, weight loss, anorexia, edema, pruritus)
  • Some patients may be asymptomatic
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms, if present, include diarrhea, abdominal pain, dysentery, flatulence, jaundice, rectal prolapse, dyspepsia, malabsorption, vomiting & biliary colic
  • Extraintestinal infection can also occur & may give rise to symptoms (eg headache, seizures, cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, wheezing, vulvovaginitis, dysuria, hematuria, skin rashes, pruritus, arthralgia, anemia, fatigue & claudication)

Risk Factors

Host Susceptibility Factors in Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections

  • Nutritional status
  • Immunosuppressive drugs
  • Age (newborn)
  • Intercurrent disease
  • Presence of a malignancy
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
DOWNLOAD
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Saras Ramiya, 3 days ago
US researchers show split liver transplantation and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) may be superior to whole liver transplantation in improving outcomes in paediatric patients.
27 Nov 2017
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global problem. Chronic HBV infection is probably the most common maternal infection encountered in Hong Kong, China, and Southeast Asia. In Hong Kong, which is one of the endemic areas, immunisation against HBV was first provided in 1983 to infants born to mothers who were screened positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Immunisation became widespread since November 1988, but HBsAg-positive mothers are still encountered frequently.1
Sudeta D Connolly, Sonali Nanayakkara, 01 Aug 2011

Anxiety disorders are one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, but they often go undetected or untreated. Identification and effective treatment of childhood anxiety disorders can decrease the negative impact of these disorders on academic and social functioning in youth and their persistence into adulthood. Because of the national shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists in the US, paediatricians are increasingly called on to be front-line partners with child mental health professionals to coordinate care—with screening and early identification as well as with multimodal treatment of childhood anxiety disorders.

2 days ago
Dr Michael Lim, consultant of the Division of Paediatric Pulmonary and Sleep in National University Hospital, Singapore, shares his insights with Pearl Toh on diagnosing and managing paediatric asthma in the primary care setting.