gastroenteritis%20-%20parasitic
GASTROENTERITIS - PARASITIC
Frequently, patients with gastrointestinal parasitic infections do not have any signs and symptoms that are specific for parasitic infections (eg fever, malaise, fatigue, sweating, wt loss, anorexia, edema, pruritus).
Some patients may be asymptomatic.
Gastrointestinal symptoms, if present, include diarrhea, abdominal pain, dysentery, flatulence, jaundice, rectal prolapse, dyspepsia, malabsorption, vomiting and biliary colic. 

Introduction

  • Parasites causing gastrointestinal symptoms may be transmitted to humans via the fecal-oral route by food or water ingestion, or by skin penetration

Etiology

Parasites according to their mode of transmission

  • Soil-transmitted helminths: Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura
  • Food-borne trematodes: Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Fasciola hepatics, Paragonimus sp.
  • Water-borne parasites: Schistosoma haematobium/japonicum/mansoni, Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica

Signs and Symptoms

  • Frequently, patients w/ gastrointestinal parasitic infections do not have any signs & symptoms that are specific for parasitic infections (eg fever, malaise, fatigue, sweating, weight loss, anorexia, edema, pruritus)
  • Some patients may be asymptomatic
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms, if present, include diarrhea, abdominal pain, dysentery, flatulence, jaundice, rectal prolapse, dyspepsia, malabsorption, vomiting & biliary colic
  • Extraintestinal infection can also occur & may give rise to symptoms (eg headache, seizures, cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, wheezing, vulvovaginitis, dysuria, hematuria, skin rashes, pruritus, arthralgia, anemia, fatigue & claudication)

Risk Factors

Host Susceptibility Factors in Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections

  • Nutritional status
  • Immunosuppressive drugs
  • Age (newborn)
  • Intercurrent disease
  • Presence of a malignancy
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