Diarrhea is a change in normal bowel movements characterized by increase in frequency, water content or volume of stools. The usual stool output is 10 g/kg/day.
Acute diarrhea lasts ≤14 days while chronic diarrhea lasts >14 days.
Infectious diarrhea is usually associated with symptoms of nausea and vomiting and abdominal cramps.
  1. Adachi JA, Ericsson CD, Jiang ZD, et al. Azithromycin found to be comparable to levofloxacin for the treatment of US traveler with acute diarrhea acquired in Mexico. Sep 30, 2003. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Nov;37(9):1165-1171. doi: 10.1086/378746. PMID: 14557959
  2. Diemert DJ. Prevention and self-treatment of travelers' diarrhea. Prim Care Clin Office Pract. 2002 Dec;29(4):843-855. PMID: 12687896
  3. Guerrant RL, Van Gilder T, Steiner TS, et al; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Practice guidelines for the management of infectious diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Feb;32(3):331-350. doi: 10.1086/318514. PMID: 11170940
  4. Ryan ET, Kain KC. Health advice and immunizations for travelers. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jun;342(23):1716-1725. doi: 10.1056/NEJM200006083422306. PMID: 10841875
  5. Thielman NM, Guerrant RL. Clinical practice: acute infectious diarrhea. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jan;350(1):38-47. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp031534. PMID: 14702426
  6. Acute Gastroenteritis Guideline Team, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. Evidence-based clinical care guideline for medical management of acute gastroenteritis in children aged 2 months through 5 years. Guideline 5. 2005 Oct:1-5.
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Managing acute gastroenteritis among children: oral rehydration, maintenance, and nutritional therapy. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2003 Nov;52(No. RR-16):1-16. PMID: 14627948
  8. Pong AL, Bradley JS. Guidelines for the selection of antibacterial therapy in children. Pediatrics Clin North Am. 2005 Jun;52(3):869-894. PMID: 15925666
  9. Musher DM, Musher BL. Contagious acute gastrointestinal infections. N Engl J Med. 2004 Dec;351(23):2417-2427. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra041837. PMID: 15575058
  10. Murphy MS. Guidelines for managing acute gastroenteritis based on a systematic review of published research. Arch Dis Child. 1998 Sep;79(3):279-284. doi: 10.1136/adc.79.3.279. PMID: 9875030
  11. Shek KC, Ng P, Hung CY, et al. A review of the management of acute gastroenteritis in children. Hong Kong J Emerg Med. 2004;11:152-160.
  12. Spandorfer PR, Alessandrini EA, Joffe MD, et al. Oral versus intravenous rehydration of moderately dehydrated children: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2005 Feb;115(2):295-301. doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-0245. PMID: 15687435
  13. American Academy of Pediatrics. Subcommittee on Acute Gastroenteritis and Provisional Committee on Quality Improvement. Practice parameter: the management of acute gastroenteritis in young children. Pediatrics. 1996 Mar;97(3):424-435. PMID: 8604285
  14. Pickering LK, Cleary TG. Infections of the gastrointestinal tract. In: Gershon AA, Hotez PJ, Katz SL, eds. Krugman’s infectious diseases of children. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Inc; 2004.
  15. Payton KSE. Gastroenterology. In: Robertson J, Shilkofski N, eds. The Harriet Lane handbook: a manual for pediatric house officers. 17th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby, Elsevier; 2005
  16. MedWorm
  17. MedWorm
  18. Academy of Medicine of Malaysia, College of Paediatrics. Clinical practice guidelines on acute gastroenteritis in children. 2001.
  19. Shlim DR. Update in traveler's diarrhea. Infect Clin North Am. 2005;19(1):137-149. j.idc.2004.10.009. PMID: 15701551
  20. World Health Organization. Pocket book of hospital care for children: guidelines for the management of common childhood illnesses. 2nd ed. World Health Organization Web Site. 2013.
  21. Shane AL, Mody RK, Crump JA, et al. 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of infectious diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Nov;65(12):1963-1973. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix959. PMID: 29194529
  22. McDonald LC, Gerding DN, Johnson S, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children: 2017 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). 2018 Mar;66(7):e1-e48. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix1085. PMID: 29462280
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
6 days ago

Dr Michael Lim, a senior consultant at the Paediatric Pulmonary and Sleep Division, National University Hospital, Singapore, speaks to Roshini Claire Anthony on the rare disease that is cystic fibrosis.

4 days ago
Susceptibility‐guided therapy is as effective as empiric modified bismuth quadruple therapy for the first-line treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, with both yielding excellent eradication rates, as shown in a recent trial.
6 days ago
It appears that long-term consumption of fish and omega-3 fatty acid does not influence the risk of incident hypertension in middle-aged and older men, suggests a US study.
2 days ago
Cabozantinib is not better than mitoxantrone-prednisone at relieving pain in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) with symptomatic bone metastasis, a recent study suggests.