gastroenteritis%20-%20bacterial
GASTROENTERITIS - BACTERIAL
Diarrhea is a change in normal bowel movements characterized by increase in frequency, water content or volume of stools. The usual stool output is 10 g/kg/day.
Acute diarrhea lasts ≤14 days while chronic diarrhea lasts >14 days.
Infectious diarrhea is usually associated with symptoms of nausea and vomiting and abdominal cramps.

Prevention

Traveler's Diarrhea
  • Traveler should avoid:
    • Undercooked food except peeled fruits or vegetables
    • Non-bottled beverages & unpasteurized dairy products

Water Purification

  • Travelers who are going to be living in rustic circumstances overseas will need to make arrangements for a safe water supply

Prophylactic Antibiotics

  • Effective but cannot be recommended unless the complications of diarrhea in a traveler or severe dehydration in a person with an underlying medical condition cause the benefits of antibiotic prophylaxis to outweigh the risks
  • May also be given to asymptomatic people whose stools have been tested positive for Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar typhimurium to reduce spread of infection

Probiotics

  • May decrease the incidence of diarrhea in travelers
  • Eg Lactobacillus sp, Saccharomyces boulardii, Bifidobacterium sp
Cholera
  • V cholera is spread through contaminated food & water
  • Prevention depends on interruption of fecal oral transmission
  • Travelers to regions with cholera should follow precautions for the prevention of traveler’s diarrhea
  • Water can be treated with Chlorine or Iodine, by filtration or by boiling
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