Gastric cancer is the cancer originating in the esophagus, esophagogastric junction and stomach.
Most of gastric cancers are adenocarcinomas, subdivided according to histological appearances into diffuse (undifferentiated) and intestinal (well differentiated) types.
It is the 4th most common cancer and the 2nd most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide.
Most common sites of gastric cancer are the proximal lesser curvature, cardia and esophagogastric junction.
A regular follow-up may allow investigation and treatment of symptoms, psychological support and early detection of recurrence, though there is no evidence that it improves survival outcomes
Response to systemic treatments should normally be assessed with interval computed tomography (CT) imaging of chest, abdomen and pelvis
In the advanced disease setting, identification of patients for second-line chemotherapy and clinical trials requires regular follow-up to detect symptoms of disease progression before significant clinical deterioration
The type of pathological response and histologic tumor regression after neoadjuvant therapy has been shown to be a predictor of survival
Follow-up should include a complete history and physical examination every 3-6 months for 1-2 years, every 6-12 months for 3-5 years and annually thereafter
Patients who have undergone surgical resection should be monitored and treated as indicated for vitamin B12 and iron deficiency
Endoscopic surveillance requires multiple (4-6) biopsies of any visualized abnormalities after definitive treatment of gastric cancer
Strictures found on endoscopy should be biopsied
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration is recommended if areas of wall thickening or suspicious lymph nodes are noted
Patients with Tis and successfully treated with endoscopic resection should undergo EGD every 6 months for 1 year then annually for 3 years
Patients with pathologic stage I who underwent surgical resection for T1a, T1b, N0-1 or endoscopic resection for T1a should undergo EGD every 6 months for 1 year then annually for 5 years with subsequent follow-ups based on symptoms or radiologic findings
Patients with pathologic stage II/III or postneoadjuvant stage I-III who underwent neoadjuvant therapy with or without adjuvant therapy should have CT scans of the chest, abdomen and pelvis every 6-12 months for the first 2 years, then annually up to 5 years with subsequent follow-ups based on risk factors and comorbidities