food%20allergy%20(pediatric)
FOOD ALLERGY (PEDIATRIC)
Food allergy is an adverse reaction due to a specific immune response occurring reproducibly upon exposure to certain foods. It occurs minutes to hours after food consumption.
Immunological mechanisms can be IgE mediated, non-IgE mediated or mixed IgE and non-IgE mediated.
It may be life-threatening and is the most common cause of anaphylaxis in children.
It should be differentiated from food intolerance in which adverse reactions from exposure to food arise from non-immunological mechanisms.

Food%20allergy%20(pediatric) Signs and Symptoms

Introduction

  • May be life-threatening and is the most common cause of anaphylaxis in children
  • Should be differentiated from food intolerance, in which adverse reactions from exposure to food arise from non-immunological mechanisms

Definition

  • An adverse reaction due to a specific immune response occurring reproducibly upon exposure to certain foods

Etiology

Immunological Mechanisms

  • IgE-mediated (eg oral allergy syndrome)
  • Non-IgE-mediated (eg food protein-induced enteropathy, celiac disease) - may be caused by several chronic diseases
  • Mixed IgE and non-IgE-mediated (eg eosinophilic gastroenteritis)

Signs and Symptoms

  • Occurs minutes to hours after food consumption
  • Cutaneous: Flushing, erythema, pruritus, urticaria, angioedema, morbiliform eruption, eczematous rash
  • Ocular: Pruritus, conjunctival erythema, tearing, periorbital edema
  • Respiratory: Sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, pruritus, dry cough, laryngeal edema, hoarseness, dyspnea, wheezing, chest tightness, intercostal retractions, accessory muscle use
  • Gastrointestinal: Angioedema of lips, tongue, or palate, oral pruritus, tongue swelling, nausea and vomiting, reflux, abdominal pain, diarrhea, hematochezia, irritability and food refusal with weight loss in young children
  • Cardiovascular: Hypotension, dizziness, tachycardia (sometimes bradycardia in anaphylaxis), fainting, loss of consciousness
  • Miscellaneous: Uterine contractions, vertigo, hemiparesis (in adults), sense of “impending doom”
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Roshini Claire Anthony, 6 days ago

About one-quarter of the calories consumed by children and adolescents may be acquired from empty calories, according to a US-based study presented at Nutrition 2020 Live Online.

Elaine Soliven, 20 Jul 2020
Treatment with riboflavin significantly reduced monthly headache days in children and adolescents with migraine, according to a study presented at AHS 2020.
17 Jun 2020
Ketogenic diet is safe and useful for treating infants with drug-resistant epilepsy, a recent study suggests.
Elaine Soliven, 18 Jul 2020

The use of insulin detemir among women with pre-existing diabetes was not associated with an increased risk of negative pregnancy outcomes, such as major congenital malformations and perinatal or neonatal deaths, compared with other basal insulins, according to the EVOLVE* study.