Febrile neutropenia is having a fever of ≥38.3 ºC or ≥38 ºC over an hour and neutropenia that is having an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of <500 neutrophils/mm3 or an ANC <1000 neutrophils/mm3 expected to decline to ≤500 neutrophils/mm3 over the next 48 hours.
The risk of febrile neutropenia is directly proportional to the duration and severity of neutropenia.
Fever is frequently the only indication of infection in the neutropenic patient.
Imipenem-cilastatin exhibited better efficacy than piperacillin-tazobactam as empiric antibiotic for febrile neutropaenia in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients, based on a study.
Empirical cefepime monotherapy is associated with less economic strain and lower risk of serious adverse or toxic effects of multidrug combinations compared with piperacillin-tazobactam in paediatric febrile neutropaenia patients, as shown in a study.
High-dose intravenous cefepime 2 g every 8 hours may impart adequate antibiotic exposure if the pathogen has ≤ 4 mg/liter MIC in febrile neutropaenic patients with haematological malignancies and normal renal function, as presented in a study.
Febrile neutropenia is an adverse event that requires immediate hospitalization for evaluation and administration of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics. This study was conducted to evaluate the infectious agents, choice of empiric antibiotics, and outcome in high-risk febrile neutropenia in the solid organ malignancies.
In patients with underlying heart failure (HF) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), concurrent episodes of community-acquired pneumonia increase the risk of disease exacerbations, such as short-term cardiac complications and respiratory failure, a recent study has shown.
Probiotics have a long history of use in humans. Defined as "live organisms that confer a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate amounts", the spectrum of use of probiotics in humans ranges from foods and dietary supplements to pharmaceutical/nutraceutical products to affect general health and disease. While the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are the two most common probiotics associated with consumer products, there exist other organisms (eg, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, some non-pathogenic strains of Escherichia coliand Bacillus species) that are used as probiotics.1–3 One of them is the probiotic strain B. clausii that has been found to be effective for the treatment of diarrhoea and antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side effects.4–6
Dengvaxia, a recombinant, live-attenuated dengue vaccine, has the potential to bring down the number of hospitalizations by 13 to 25 percent and be cost-effective in areas of moderate-to-high dengue endemicity, according to a model comparison study.