Febrile neutropenia is having a fever of ≥38.3 ºC or ≥38 ºC over an hour and neutropenia that is having an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of <500 neutrophils/mm3 or an ANC <1000 neutrophils/mm3 expected to decline to ≤500 neutrophils/mm3 over the next 48 hours.
The risk of febrile neutropenia is directly proportional to the duration and severity of neutropenia.
Fever is frequently the only indication of infection in the neutropenic patient.
Imipenem-cilastatin exhibited better efficacy than piperacillin-tazobactam as empiric antibiotic for febrile neutropaenia in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients, based on a study.
Empirical cefepime monotherapy is associated with less economic strain and lower risk of serious adverse or toxic effects of multidrug combinations compared with piperacillin-tazobactam in paediatric febrile neutropaenia patients, as shown in a study.
High-dose intravenous cefepime 2 g every 8 hours may impart adequate antibiotic exposure if the pathogen has ≤ 4 mg/liter MIC in febrile neutropaenic patients with haematological malignancies and normal renal function, as presented in a study.
Febrile neutropenia is an adverse event that requires immediate hospitalization for evaluation and administration of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics. This study was conducted to evaluate the infectious agents, choice of empiric antibiotics, and outcome in high-risk febrile neutropenia in the solid organ malignancies.
Aspergillus colonization may lead to an increase in the risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. This study determined the impact of colonization of conidia Aspergillus species after post lung transplantation.
No standard currently exists for the growing number of patients with multidrug-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori, but a recent study has shown the safety and reliability of a 12-day low-dose rifabutin/high-dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) regimen in patients infected with triple-resistant strains.
Adding rifampicin to standard antibiotic therapy does not improve outcomes in individuals with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteraemia, the ARREST* trial shows. However, rifampicin may contribute towards a minor reduction in bacteraemia recurrence.
Patients with a first episode of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are likely to respond to treatment with fidaxomicin with no recurrences, a recent study has shown. On the other hand, those with prior CDI episodes are less likely to respond, especially with >1 prior episode, and more likely to recur, which suggests a greater clinical benefit of fidaxomicin earlier in the course of CDI.