erectile%20dysfunction
ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION

Erectile dysfunction is the inability to attain and maintain an erection enough to have satisfactory sexual performance for ≥3 months.

It is when the patient complains of partial erection that could not attain vaginal penetration.

Complete loss of penile rigidity is uncommon.

Initial penile erections can penetrate but early detumescence occurs without ejaculation.

Erectile%20dysfunction Signs and Symptoms

Definition

  • Inability to attain & maintain an erection enough to have satisfactory sexual performance for at least 3 months

Etiology

  • Increasing evidence have shown that erectile dysfunction can be an early manifestation of coronary artery & peripheral vascular disease

Signs and Symptoms

  • Complete loss of penile rigidity is uncommon
  • A patient may complain of partial erection that could not attain vaginal penetration
  • Initial penile erections can penetrate but early detumescence occurs without ejaculation
  • Nocturnal penile tumescence
  • Inability to maintain erection during private masturbation and/or erections related to erotic materials or other partners

Risk Factors

  • Erectile dysfunction has common risk factors as w/ cardiovascular diseases
  • Studies have shown that erectile dysfunction has been associated w/ lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia, & sexual dysfunction regardless of age & other comorbidities & various lifestyle factors
Comorbidities & other risk factors that may contribute to erectile dysfunction:
Arteriogenic
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Hypertension
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Hyperlipidemia & the metabolic syndrome
  • Heavy smoking
  • Peripheral vascular disorders
  • Recreational drug abuse
Neurogenic
  • Trauma
  • Spinal cord injury
Endocrine
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Hypogonadism/testosterone deficiency
  • Hyperprolactinemia
  • Hyper- & hypothyroidism
  • Obesity
Psychiatric & Psychogenic
  • Depression
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Relationship issues
  • Stress
  • Performance anxiety
  • Loss of attraction
Drugs
  • Antiandrogens (eg Finasteride) 
  • Antihypertensives (beta-blockers, Spironolactone, Methyldopa, thiazide diuretics)
  • Narcotics
  • Cimetidine
  • Antidepressants
  • Tranquillizers
  • Others
Penile Disorders
  • Peyronie’s disease
  • Severe phimosis
Others
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Obstructive sleep apnea 
  • Pelvic and prostatic radiation therapy
  • Pelvic and prostate surgery [eg transuretheral resection of the prostate (TURP), radical prostatectomy 
  • Sedentary lifestyle
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
01 Dec 2020
Tetanus toxoid 5 Lf, diphtheria toxoid 2 Lf, pertussis toxoid 2.5 mcg, filamentous haemagglutinin 5 mcg, fimbriae types 2 and 3 5 mcg, pertactin 3 mcg
Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa, 08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.
Pearl Toh, 26 Nov 2020
Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) should be the mainstay of long-term asthma management — such is the key message of the latest Singapore ACE* Clinical Guidance (ACG) for asthma, released in October 2020.
4 days ago
Among patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, the use of biologics appears to lower the risk of being hospitalized for the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a new study has found.