erectile%20dysfunction
ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION

Erectile dysfunction is the inability to attain and maintain an erection enough to have satisfactory sexual performance for ≥3 months.

It is when the patient complains of partial erection that could not attain vaginal penetration.

Complete loss of penile rigidity is uncommon.

Initial penile erections can penetrate but early detumescence occurs without ejaculation.

Definition

  • Inability to attain & maintain an erection enough to have satisfactory sexual performance for at least 3 mths

Etiology

  • Increasing evidence have shown that erectile dysfunction can be an early manifestation of coronary artery & peripheral vascular disease

Signs and Symptoms

  • Complete loss of penile rigidity is uncommon
  • A patient may complain of partial erection that could not attain vaginal penetration
  • Initial penile erections can penetrate but early detumescence occurs w/o ejaculation

Risk Factors

  • Erectile dysfunction has common risk factors as w/ cardiovascular diseases
  • Studies have shown that erectile dysfunction has been associated w/ lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia, & sexual dysfunction regardless of age & other comorbidities & various lifestyle factors

Other Risk Factors Associated w/ Erectile Dysfunction

Comorbidities & risk factors that contribute to erectile dysfunction should be identified:

Arteriogenic

  • DM
  • Hypertension
  • CV disease
  • Hyperlipidemia & the metabolic syndrome
  • Heavy smoking
  • Peripheral vascular disorders
  • Recreational drug abuse

Neurogenic

  • Alcohol abuse
  • Trauma
  • Spinal cord injury
  • DM

Endocrine

  • Hypogonadism/testosterone deficiency
  • Hyperprolactinemia
  • Hyper- & hypothyroidism

Psychiatric & Psychogenic

  • Depression
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Relationship issues
  • Stress
  • Performance anxiety
  • Loss of attraction
Drugs
  • Antihypertensives (beta-blockers, Spironolactone, Methyldopa, thiazide diuretics)
  • Narcotics
  • Cimetidine
  • Antidepressants
  • Tranquillizers
  • Others

Penile Disorders

  • Peyronie’s disease
  • Severe phimosis

Others

  • Obesity
  • Pelvic radiation therapy
  • Sedentary lifestyle
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