erectile%20dysfunction
ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION

Erectile dysfunction is the inability to attain and maintain an erection enough to have satisfactory sexual performance for ≥3 months.

It is when the patient complains of partial erection that could not attain vaginal penetration.

Complete loss of penile rigidity is uncommon.

Initial penile erections can penetrate but early detumescence occurs without ejaculation.

  1. Andersson KE. Pharmacology of erectile function and dysfunction. Urol Clin North Am. 2001 May;28(2):233-247. PMID: 11402577
  2. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of male sexual dysfunction: a couple's problem -2003 update. Endocr Pract. 2003 Jan;9(1):77-95. PMID: 12917096
  3. Becher E. Topical alprostadil cream for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2004 Mar;5(3):623-632. PMID: 15013930
  4. Ernst E, Pittler MH. Yohimbine for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis for randomized clinical trials [abstract]. J Urol. 1998 Feb;159(2):433-436. PMID: 9649257
  5. Lue TF. Erectile dysfunction. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jun;342(24):1802-1813. PMID: 10853004
  6. Montorsi F, Salonia A, Deho F, et al. Pharmacological management of erectile dysfunction. BJU Int. 2003 Mar;91(5):446-454. PMID: 12603396
  7. Morales A, Heaton JP. Hormonal erectile dysfunction. Evaluation and management. Urol Clin North Am. 2001 May;28(2):279-288. PMID: 11402581
  8. Morgentaler A. Male impotence. Lancet. 1999 Nov;354(9191):1713-1718. PMID: 10568586
  9. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Endocrinology/15/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Endocrinology.xml
  10. Malaysia Urological Association and MEDACT. Clinical Practice Guide in Erectile Dysfunction. www.acadmed.org.my/view_file.cfm?fileid=211. Aug 2000
  11. American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Management of erectile dysfunction [chapter 1 w/ appendix: diagnosis and treatment guideline]. http://www.auanet.org/education/guidelines/erectile-dysfunction.cfm. 2005
  12. British Society for Sexual Medicine. Guidelines on the management of erectile dysfunction. http://www.bssm.org.uk/downloads/BSSM_ED_Management_Guidelines_2009.pdf. 2009
  13. Rosen RC, Riley A, Wagner G, et al. The international index of erectile function (IIEF): a multidimensional scale for assessment of erectile dysfunction. Urology. 1997 Jun;49(6):822-830. PMID: 9187685
  14. Wespes E, Eardley I, Giuliano F, et al. Guidelines on male sexual dysfunction: erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. European Association of Urology (EAU). http://www.uroweb.org/gls/pdf/14_Male%20Sexual%20Dysfunction_LR.pdf. 2013 Mar. Accessed 11 Feb 2014.
  15. Hatzimouratidis K, Eardley I, Giuliano F, et al. European Association of Urology guidelines on male sexual dysfunction: erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. 2015 Mar:1-53.
  16. Bella A, Lee J, Carrier S, et al. 2015 Canadian Urological Association practice guidelines for erectile dysfunction. Can Urol Assoc J. 2015 Jan;9(1-2):23-29. doi: 10.5489/cuaj.2699. PMID: 25737750
  17. Alhathal N, Elshal AM, Carrier S. Synergetic effect of testosterone and phophodiesterase-5 inhibitors in hypogonadal men with erectile dysfunction: a systematic review. Can Urol Assoc J. 2012 Aug;6(4):269-274. doi: 10.5489/cuaj.11291. PMID: 23093538
  18. Duggin M. Erectile Dysfunction. In: Kellerman R D, Bope E T. Conn's Current Therapy 2018. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.; 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-52769-9.00251-8. Accessed 06 Feb 2018:1068-1070.
  19. Wincze J P. Erectile Dysfunction. In: Ferri F. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier, Inc; 2018. 466-467. :466-467.
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Pearl Toh, 6 days ago
In addition to the known evils of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the son’s semen quality, prenatal exposure to paternal smoking can also be harmful, according to data from the large Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) presented at the ESHRE 2019 Meeting.
26 Mar 2017
Siblings of men with oligozoospermia are susceptible to any-site cancer and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, according to a recent study.
06 Jul 2019
Intraureteral seems better than conventional stent placement as it results in less stent-related discomfort, according to a study. This novel placement method is safe and feasible and may be used immediately in daily clinical practice.
07 Aug 2018
While nonseminoma testicular cancer (TC) has a stronger genetic background, seminoma appears to have more familial associations with discordant cancers, a recent study has found.