epilepsy
EPILEPSY
Epilepsy is a clinical multiaxial diagnosis.
Epileptic seizure is a transient occurrence of signs/symptoms brought about by abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
It is recommended that all patients having a first seizure be referred as soon as possible to a specialist to ensure accurate and early diagnosis and initiation of treatment appropriate to the needs of the patients.

Definition

Unprovoked seizure 

  • Unprovoked seizure is a single or multiple seizures that occurred within 24 hours that has recovery of consciousness between seizures
  • A single seizure can be an initial manifestation of epilepsy or may be a symptom of a brain tumor, a systemic disorder, an infection or a syndrome

Epilepsy

  • Epilepsy may be defined by any of the following conditions:
    • At least two unprovoked (or reflex) seizures occurring >24 hours apart
    • One unprovoked (or reflex) seizure and a probability of further seizures similar to the general recurrence risk (at least 60%) after two unprovoked seizures, occurring over the next 10 years
    • Diagnosis of epileptic syndrome

Epidemiology

  • In the United States, an estimated 150,000 adults annually present with an unprovoked first seizure
    • An estimated 40-50% of these incident seizures recur to be classified as epilepsy
    • Lifetime cumulative risk of developing recurrent unprovoked seizures or epilepsy by the age of 80 years ranges from 1.4-3.3%

Pathophysiology

  • Epileptic seizure is a transient occurrence of signs/symptoms brought about by abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain
  • It is a disease of the brain characterized by enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures, and by the neurobiologic, cognitive, psychological, and social consequences of this condition
  • An epileptic seizure represents a disruption in the normal balance between excitatory and inhibitory currents or neurotransmission in the brain. Drugs or pathogenic processes that augment excitation or impair inhibition tend to be epileptogenic, while anti-seizure drugs tend to facilitate inhibition and dampen excitation

Signs and Symptoms

Clinical Symptoms (During Seizure)

  • Aura
  • Cyanosis
  • Sudden falls
  • Motor symptoms: Involuntary stiffening or jerky movements of limbs in an awake, unaware or asleep patient
  • Sensory symptoms: Blank spells with or without automatisms
  • Autonomic symptoms: Urinary incontinence or tongue biting with loss of awareness, or during sleep
  • Alteration of mental status: Episodes of confused behavior with lack or loss of awareness and/or recollection
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
29 Apr 2016
This article presents the excerpts from the Inaugural Meeting of the Dementia Advisory Board Malaysia held on 23 January 2016 in Kuala Lumpur, highlighting the clinical evidence of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761® in dementia, treatment recommendations from international guidelines and consensus reached during the meeting on the role of EGb761® in managing dementia.
Christina Lau, 23 Nov 2018

Use of a ginkgo biloba extract on top of standard preventive treatment is shown to improve cognitive function and overall condition after acute ischaemic stroke.