Epilepsy is a clinical multiaxial diagnosis.
Epileptic seizure is a transient occurrence of signs/symptoms brought about by abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
It is recommended that all patients having a first seizure be referred as soon as possible to a specialist to ensure accurate and early diagnosis and initiation of treatment appropriate to the needs of the patients.
A low sodium concentration in the blood is commonly observed in patients with epilepsy, with moderate and severe hyponatraemia associated with reduced bone mineral density in the lumbar spine, a study has found.
A broad range of peripheral infections, including those of the central nervous system, appears to be associated with a heightened risk of developing epilepsy, potentially due to inflammatory processes affecting the brain, according to a study.
Combination therapy increases the chance of achieving seizure freedom in patients who have failed their first antiepileptic drug due to lack of efficacy as compared with alternative therapy or dose escalation, a study has shown.
Inpatients with refractory epilepsy often have probable obstructive sleep apnoea (pOSA), and those with pOSA are older, heavier and more likely to have focal seizures and longer disease duration, a study reports.
A 38-year-old right-handed man had had epilepsy since 2 months of age. There was no relevant family history. Perinatal history was unremarkable. No other risk factors such as central nervous system infection or cerebral trauma were identified. Developmental history did not show major delay. His epilepsy was uncontrolled despite trying valproate, carbamazepine, clobazam, levetiracetam, oxcarbamazepine and perampanel.
The antiepileptic drug carbamazepine may be a poor choice for the treatment of elderly patients with comorbid hyperlipidaemia or cardiovascular disease, with posthoc data from the STEP-ONE trial showing that the drug undermines the action of lipid-lowering drugs.
The use of antidepressant drugs in pregnant women taking antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) does not appear to contribute to a significant increase in the risk of congenital malformations, as well as affect seizure control, a study has found.
New drug applications approved by US FDA as of 16 - 31 August 2018 which includes New Molecular Entities (NMEs) and new biologics. It does not include Tentative Approvals. Supplemental approvals may have occurred since the original approval date.