Epilepsy is a clinical multiaxial diagnosis.
Epileptic seizure is a transient occurrence of signs/symptoms brought about by abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
It is recommended that all patients having a first seizure be referred as soon as possible to a specialist to ensure accurate and early diagnosis and initiation of treatment appropriate to the needs of the patients.
In the treatment of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, switching from valproate to other antiepileptic drugs due to potential childbearing issues may prove detrimental, heightening the risk of poor seizure control, as shown in a recent study.
The anticonvulsant drugs levetiracetam, fosphenytoin and valproate all demonstrate efficacy for benzodiazepine-refractory convulsive status epilepticus, with each drug inducing seizure cessation and improving alertness in most patients and yielding similar safety outcomes, according to data from the Established Status Epilepticus Treatment Trial (ESETT).
Use of lacosamide therapy in the long-term management of adult patients with epilepsy is effective and well tolerated, yielding seizure freedom rates comparable to that achieved with controlled‐release carbamazepine (carbamazepine‐CR), as reported in a recent study.
Three anticonvulsant drugs — levetiracetam, fosphenytoin, and valproate — are equally effective in stopping life-threatening epilepsy seizures in patients who are unresponsive to benzodiazepines, thus providing affirmation for physicians that any of the three drugs can be used for treating status epilepticus, according to results from ESETT*.
Use of topiramate in the treatment of both refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus is safe and well tolerated and leads to SE resolution in a number of patients, according to a recent study.
Use of stiripentol as an adjunctive treatment in patients with different types of refractory epilepsies, including focal onset epilepsy without bilateral tonic‐clonic seizures, has demonstrated long-term efficacy in a prospective observational study.
Measuring heart rate variability (HRV) using a wearable echocardiography (ECG) device shows promise in detecting seizures, including the nonconvulsive episodes, proving to have high sensitivity and low false alarm rate during the night, according to data from a phase II validation study.
Between the two most common invasive monitoring approaches, stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) leads to fewer surgical resections yet more favourable seizure freedom outcomes in epilepsy patients scheduled to undergo resections compared with subdural electrodes, as reported in a systematic review. Additionally, SEEG is associated with lower morbidity and mortality.
Raving at electronic dance music festivals that commonly use stroboscopic light effects may be risky for individuals who are susceptible to epileptic seizures, with a recent study suggesting that strobe lights carry a threefold increased seizure hazard.
Having migraine during midlife appears to be associated with a higher risk of developing dementia in later life, according to a large population-based longitudinal Danish study presented at the AHS* 2020 Virtual Meeting, indicating that migraine may be a risk factor for dementia.
After treatment with fremanezumab, a difficult-to-treat patient population with treatment-resistant episodic or chronic migraine saw sustained benefits across a broad range of measures, according to multiple analyses of the FOCUS study released during the AHS 2020 Virtual Meeting.
An active lifestyle, regardless of vascular risk, may delay the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by slowing down cognitive decline and neurodegeneration, according to a study presented at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference (AAIC 2019).
Sex-specific differences in the way brain regions are connected may influence how tau propagates through the brain and thus, differences in the risk of Alzheimer’s disease between men and women; while participating in the workforce may help stave cognitive decline in women, suggest studies presented at AAIC 2019.