epilepsy%20(pediatric)
EPILEPSY (PEDIATRIC)
Epileptic seizure is a transient occurrence of signs or symptoms that is due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Epilepsy is a disorder that is characterized by a persistent predisposition of the brain to generate epileptic seizures.
This condition may cause neurobiologic, cognitive, psychological and social disturbances.
It is recommended that all patients having a first seizure be referred to a specialist as soon as possible.

Introduction

  • Epilepsy is a disorder that is characterized by a persistent predisposition of the brain to generate epileptic seizures
  • This condition may cause neurobiologic, cognitive, psychological and social disturbances

Definition

  • Seizure is defined as a transient occurrence of signs and symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal brain activity
  • Epilepsy is a disorder that is characterized by a persistent predisposition of the brain to generate epileptic seizures
  • Epileptic seizure is a transient occurrence of signs or symptoms that is due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain

Etiology

  • Determine the disease associated with the epileptic seizure or syndrome
  • Eg neurocutaneous diseases, malformations, tumors, chromosomal anomalies, monogenic Mendelian diseases, etc
  • Seizures in neonates, infants and toddlers
    • Mostly associated with perinatal brain injury, congenital central nervous system (CNS) malformation and metabolic derangement
  • Seizures in late childhood
    • Most frequently result from infection, genetic epilepsy, neurodegenerative disorders

Signs and Symptoms

During Seizure

  • Sudden falls
  • Involuntary jerky movements of limbs in an awake patient
  • Blank spells
  • Urine incontinence with loss of awareness, or during sleep
  • Falls, jerky movements, automatisms during sleep
  • Episodes of confused behavior with lack or loss of awareness and/or recollection

Risk Factors

  • Visual stimulation (eg photic stimulation), drug-induced (eg alcohol), sleep deprivation or metabolic causes (eg hyponatremia, hypoglycemia or hypocalcemia)
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