epilepsy%20(pediatric)
EPILEPSY (PEDIATRIC)
Epileptic seizure is a transient occurrence of signs or symptoms that is due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Epilepsy is a disorder that is characterized by a persistent predisposition of the brain to generate epileptic seizures.
This condition may cause neurobiologic, cognitive, psychological and social disturbances.
It is recommended that all patients having a first seizure be referred to a specialist as soon as possible.

Epilepsy (Pediatric) References

  1. American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Clinical Policies Committee; Clinical Policies Subcommittee on Seizures. Clinical policy: Critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with seizures. Ann Emerg Med. 2004 May;43(5):605-625. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2004.01.017. PMID: 15111920
  2. Blau JN. Epilepsy in adolescents and adults. Lancet. 2000 Nov;356(9242):1690. PMID: 11089857
  3. Blume WT. Diagnosis and management of epilepsy. CMAJ. 2003 Feb;168(4):441-448. PMID: 12591787
  4. Camfield C, Camfield P. Management guidelines for children with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2005;46(Suppl Suppl 9):112-116. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2005.00322.x/epdf. PMID: 16302884
  5. Browne TR, Holmes GL. Epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 2001 Apr;344(15):1145-1151. http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM200104123441507. PMID: 11297707
  6. Chin RFM, Verhulst L, et al. Inappropriate emergency management of status epilepticus in children contributes to need for intensive care. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004 Nov;75(11):1584-1588. http://jnnp.bmj.com/content/75/11/1584.full.pdf. PMID: 15489391
  7. Chen DK, So YT, Fisher RS. Use of serum prolactin in diagnosing epileptic seizures: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2005 Sep;65(5):668-675. PMID: 16157897
  8. Feely M. Fortnightly review: drug treatment of epilepsy. BMJ. 1999 Jan;318(7176):106-109. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.. PMID: 9880286
  9. Curry WJ, Kulling DL. Newer antiepileptic drugs: Gabapentin, lamotrigine, felbamate, topiramate and fosphenytoin. Am Fam Physician. 1998 Feb;57(3):513-520. http://www.aafp.org. PMID: 9475899
  10. French JA, Kanner AM, Bautista J, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drugs I: treatment of new onset epilepsy [Report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee and Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society]. Neurol. 2004 Apr;62(8):1252-1260. doi: 10.1212/01.WNL.0000123693.82339.FC. PMID: 15111659
  11. Fisher RS, Boas WE, et al. Epileptic seizures and epilepsy: definitions proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for Epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2005 Apr;46(4):470-472. PMID: 15816939
  12. French JA, Kanner AM, Bautista J, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drugs II: treatment of refractory epilepsy [Report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee and Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society]. Neurol. 2004 Apr;62(8):1261-1273. PMID: 15111660
  13. Lowenstein DH, Alldredge BK. Status epilepticus. N Engl J Med. 1998 Apr;338(14):970-976. PMID: 9521986
  14. Meierkord H, Boon P, Engelsen B, et al. EFNS guideline on the management of status epilepticus. Eur J Neurol. 2006 May;13(5):445-450. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01397.x. PMID: 16722966
  15. Wheeler DS, et al. Pediatric emergency preparedness in the office. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Jun;61(11):3333-3342. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0601/p3333.html. PMID: 10865928
  16. Ulvi H, Yoldas T, Mungen B, et al. Continuous infusion of midazolam in the treatment of refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus. Neurol Sci. 2002 Oct;23(4):177-182. PMID: 12536286
  17. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Quality Improvement, Subcommittee on Febrile Seizures. Practice parameter: long-term treatment of the child with simple febrile seizures. Pediatrics. 1999 Jun;103(6):1307-1309. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/103/6/1307.full.pdf. PMID: 10353950
  18. Louis EK, Granner MA. Seizures and epilepsy in adolescents and adults. In: Rakel RE, Bope ET. Conn's Current Therapy. 60th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier; 2008.
  19. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Neurology/25/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Neurology.xml
  20. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  21. Stokes T, Shaw EJ, Juare-Garcia A, et al. Clinical guidelines and evidence review for the epilepsies: diagnosis and management in adults and children in primary and secondary care. NICE. http://www.nice.org.uk. Oct 2004.
  22. Ministry of Health Singapore. Clinical practice guidelines: diagnosis and management of epilepsy in adults. http://www.moh.gov.sg. Dec 1999.
  23. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Diagnosis and management of epilepsies in children and young people. SIGN website. http://www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign81.pdf. Mar 2005.
  24. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Diagnosis and management of epilepsy in adults. SIGN website. http://www.sign.ac.uk. Apr 2003.
  25. Barclay L. New evidence-based guidelines assist with immediate management of children with seizure. Medscape. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/472542.
  26. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Newer drugs for epilepsy in adults. NICE website. http://www.nice.org.uk. Mar 2004.
  27. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. NINDS Epilepsy information page. NINDS website. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/epilepsy/epilepsy.htm. 2001.
  28. Hoban TF. Seizure disorders in childhood. Loyola University Medical Education Network. http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/pedneuro/epilepsy.htm. Aug 1996.
  29. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Seizures and epilepsy: hope through research. NINDS. http://www.ninds.nih.gov. 2001.
  30. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. The epilepsies: the diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in adults and children in primary and secondary care. NICE website. http://www.nice.org.uk. Jan 2012. Accessed 12 May 2012.
  31. Wheless JW. The ketogenic diet. In: Swaiman K, Ashwal S, Ferriero DM, Ferriero D. Swaiman’s Pediatric Neurology: Principles and Practice. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Inc; 2012.
  32. Glauser T, Shinnar S, Gloss D, et al. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children and adults: report of the Guideline Committee of the American Epilepsy Society. Epilepsy Curr. 2016 Jan;16(1):48-61. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed 01 Aug 2016. PMID: 26900382
  33. Fisher RS, Cross JH, French JA, et al. Operational classification of seizure types by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE): position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2017 Apr;58(4):522-530. doi: 10.1111/epi.13670. PMID: 28276060
  34. Scheffer IE, Berkovic S, Capovilla G, et al. International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification of the epilepsies: position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2017 Apr;58(4):512-521. doi: 10.1111/epi.13709. PMID: 28276062
  35. Wilfong A. Seizures and epilepsy in children: Classification, etiology, and clinical features. UptoDate. http://www.uptodate.com/. May 2017.
  36. Kanner AM, Ashman E, Gloss D, et al. Practice guideline update summary: efficacy and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drugs I: treatment of new-onset epilepsy: report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society. Neurology. 2018 Jul;91(2):74-81. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000005755. PMID: 29898971
  37. Kanner AM, Ashman E, Gloss D, et al. Practice guideline update summary: efficacy and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drugs II: treatment-resistant epilepsy: report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society. Neurology. 2018 Jul;91(2):82-90. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000005756. PMID: 29898974
  38. Elsevier Point of Care. Epilepsy in children. ClinicalKey. https://www.clinicalkey.com/. 8 Jul 2019.
  39. Mikati MA, Tchapyjnikov D. Seizures in childhood. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme III JW, Blum NJ, et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Inc; 2020:3086-3121.
  40. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Epilepsies: the diagnosis and management. NICE. http://www.nice.org.uk/. 11 Feb 2020.
  41. Wilfong A. Seizures and epilepsy in children: Initial treatment and monitoring. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/. May 2020.
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