endometrial%20cancer
ENDOMETRIAL CANCER

Endometrial cancer is also known as uterine cancer, cancer of the corpus uteri, uterine corpus cancer, endometrical carcinoma.

It is the 6th most common malignancy worldwide.

Management of endometrial cancer should be divided based on risk, disease stage & patient's desire for fertility.

Endometrial%20cancer Signs and Symptoms

Definition

  • Also known as uterine cancer, cancer of the corpus uteri, uterine corpus cancer, endometrial carcinoma
  • The 6th most common malignancy worldwide
  • The most common gynecologic cancer in developed countries; 2nd most common in developing countries
  • More commonly presents in individuals >50 years of age
  • Usually diagnosed in its early stages and still localized, with high survival rates

Etiology

  • Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (atypical endometrial hyperplasia) is the precursor lesion to endometrial cancer according to the 1994 World Health Organization (WHO) and International Endometrial Collaborative Group schemas
  • Papillary serous carcinoma accounts for 10% of cases, but comes with high mortality rates (40%)
  • Clear cell histologic type is rare (3%) but with poor prognosis

Risk Factors

  • Age ≥55 years
  • Excess estrogen (eg estrogen therapy, estrogen-producing tumors, early menarche, late menopause)
  • Obesity; high body mass index
  • Metabolic syndrome (eg hypertension, DM)
  • Nulliparity, infertility
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
  • Genetic mutation (eg hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer/Lynch syndrome)
  • Family history of endometrial cancer
  • Smoking

Prognostic Factors

  • Age
  • International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage
  • Depth of myometrial invasion
  • Tumor differentiation grade
  • Tumor type
  • Lymphovascular space invasion
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