Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and bioavailable vitamin D (BioD) in children are associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and disruptions in inflammatory biomarkers and endothelial function, a recent study has shown.
Supplementation with vitamin D appears to help reduce the serum concentration of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride but not high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, suggesting its usefulness for mitigating the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with hypercholesterolaemia, according to the results of a meta-analysis.
A weight-loss intervention involving low-carbohydrate diet plus walking does little to improve insulin sensitivity in prostate cancer patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), according to the results of the CAPS1* trial.
Diabetic patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) may benefit from direct-acting antiviral agents, with a significant portion of patients having a clinically significant reduction in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), suggests a recent study. This effect has been sustained among responders over 1.5 years of follow-up.
Although low birth weight is associated with childhood underweight, it appears to have no impact on the risk of overweight or obesity, suggests a recent study. In addition, high birth weight correlates with childhood overweight and obesity, but reduced underweight.
Adolescents across all sex and race groups consume fibre far below daily-recommended levels, a recent study has found. Lower fibre intake of all types may lead to higher insulin levels, while fibre intake at recommendation levels may confer substantial cardiometabolic benefits.
Preferential accumulation of visceral fat (VF) in youth and adulthood is regulated by a genetic locus near ATG5, which is associated with the development of systemic inflammation in adulthood, a recent study has shown.
Screening of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) for nephrolithiasis has a low yield, especially in those at low risk, a study has shown. Moreover, biochemical indices of PHPT are only slightly correlated with osteoporosis, while mortality in PHPT is associated with higher calcium and potentially vitamin D deficiency, but not parathyroid hormone (PTH).
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at heightened risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus owing to several risk factors, including exposure to inhaled corticosteroid and frequency of exacerbations, as reported in a recent study.
Almost half of Asian patients with dyslipidaemia and hypertension, as well as half of those on pharmacotherapy, have achieved their blood pressure (BP) treatment goals, a Singapore study has shown. Moreover, BP goal attainment is significantly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) control.