ectopic%20pregnancy
ECTOPIC PREGNANCY
Ectopic pregnancy happens when the fertilized ovum implants outside the endometrial lining of the uterus.
Accurate early diagnosis is life-saving, reduces invasive diagnostic procedures & allows conservative treatment that can preserve fertility.
Ectopic pregnancy must be excluded in women of reproductive age w/ a positive pregnancy test, abdominal pain & vaginal bleeding.
Ruptured ectopic pregnancy remains to be the leading cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester.
  1. American College of Emergency Physicians. Clinical policy: critical issues in the initial evaluation and management of patients presenting to the emergency department in early pregnancy. Ann Emerg Med. 2003 Jan;41(1):123-133. PMID: 12514693
  2. Ankum WM. Diagnosing suspected ectopic pregnancy. Hcg monitoring and transvaginal ultrasound lead the way. BMJ. 2000 Nov;321(7271):1235-1236. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. PMID: 11082067
  3. Barnhart KT. Clinical practice. Ectopic pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jul;361(4):379-387. http://navyemergencymedicine.com. Accessed 11 Feb 2013. PMID: 19625718
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  5. Murray H, Baakdah H, Bardell T, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of ectopic pregnancy. CMAJ. 2005 Oct;173(8):905-912. PMID: 16217116
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  7. Lipscomb GH, Stovall TG, Ling FW. Nonsurgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 2000 Nov;343(18):1325-1329. PMID: 11058678
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  9. Gabbe S. Ectopic pregnancy. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, eds. Obstetrics normal and problem pregnancies. 4th. New York: Churchill Livingstone, Inc; 2002:743-747.
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  11. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/OBGYN/29/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/OBGYN.xml
  12. National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health commissioned by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence. Ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage: diagnosis and initial management in early pregnancy of ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage. http://www.nice.org.uk. Dec 2012. Accessed 05 Feb 2013.
  13. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 94. Medical management of ectopic pregnancy. http://www.samer.org.ar. Jun 2008. Accessed 11 Feb 2013.
  14. Chi TJ. Pregnancy, ectopic. eMedicine. http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed 11 Feb 2013.
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  16. Kelly AJ, Sowler MC, Trinder J. The management of tubal pregnancy. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Guideline No. 21. http://www.rcog.org.uk/. May 2004.
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  18. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. The management of tubal pregnancy. http://www.rcog.org.uk. May 2004.
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  20. Practice Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2013 Sep;100(3):638-644. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.06.013. Accessed 25 Apr 2014. PMID: 23849842
  21. Elson CJ, Salim R, Potdar N, et al on behalf of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy: Green-top guideline no. 21. BJOG. 2016 Dec;123(13):e15-e55. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.14189. PMID: 27813249
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