Primary dysmenorrhea is a painful menstruation without demonstrable pelvic disease.
Symptoms include intermittent painful spasms, crampy labor-like pain localized over the lower abdomen and the suprapubic area which may radiate to the lower back or inner thighs.
The pain may also be described as a dull ache or as a stabbing pain.
Accompanying symptoms include nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, lightheadedness, fatigue, fever, muscle cramps, nervousness and fainting.
Thalassaemia becomes a global health problem. Most women with thalassaemia trait can be picked up by universal prenatal screening for thalassaemia using mean corpuscular volume/haemoglobin, followed by haemoglobin pattern with or without DNA analysis.