Dry eye syndrome is a clinical condition wherein the patient experiences ocular and conjunctival irritation due to decreased tear production and/or excessive tear evaporation.
It is associated with increased osmolarity of the tear film and inflammation of the ocular surface.
Goal of treatments are to relieve symptoms of patients, to improve visual acuity & quality of life of patients, to restore ocular surface & tear film to normal homeostatic state and to correct the underlying defect.
Also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) or dysfunctional tear syndrome
Disease of the tears & ocular surface that is secondary to several factors
Associated w/ increased osmolarity of the tear film & inflammation of the ocular surface
Dysfunction in either of the lacrimal glands, ocular surface, eyelids, meibomian glands, or associated sensory or motor nerves may lead to dry eye syndrome (DES) causing changes in the volume, composition, distribution, &/or clearance of the tear film
Tear hyperosmolarity may be due to reduced aqueous flow or excessive evaporation of tears
Tear film instability may be secondary to hyperosmolarity which results in increased evaporation of tears
Signs and Symptoms
Common ocular signs & symptoms experienced by patients that usually worsen later in the day include the following:
Blurry vision (may clear temporarily w/ blink)
Contact lens intolerance
Foreign body sensation
Increased blinking frequency
Symptoms may be aggravated by wind, air travel, low humidity, prolonged use of the eyes associated w/ decreased blink rate, or smoky environments
Increases evaporation or causes irritation that worsens dry eye syndrome (DES) symptoms
A recent study reports a mean growth rate of proximal aorta of about 0.1 mm/year in hypertensive patients with known aortic dilatation. In addition, those with increased rather than normal aortic z score have slower dilatation over time.
Knee osteoarthritis (OA), whether symptomatic or radiographic, contributes to an increased risk of all-cause mortality, with the risk increase from symptomatic knee OA partially attributed to its effect on disability and quality of life (QoL).
It takes just less than 4 days for COVID-19 to spread from one person to another and cause symptoms, and more than 10 percent of the cases are infected by a person who has caught the virus but yet to show symptoms, recent studies suggest.