Dry eye syndrome is a clinical condition wherein the patient experiences ocular and conjunctival irritation due to decreased tear production and/or excessive tear evaporation.
It is associated with increased osmolarity of the tear film and inflammation of the ocular surface.
Goal of treatments are to relieve symptoms of patients, to improve visual acuity & quality of life of patients, to restore ocular surface & tear film to normal homeostatic state and to correct the underlying defect.
Also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) or dysfunctional tear syndrome
Disease of the tears & ocular surface that is secondary to several factors
Associated w/ increased osmolarity of the tear film & inflammation of the ocular surface
Dysfunction in either of the lacrimal glands, ocular surface, eyelids, meibomian glands, or associated sensory or motor nerves may lead to dry eye syndrome (DES) causing changes in the volume, composition, distribution, &/or clearance of the tear film
Tear hyperosmolarity may be due to reduced aqueous flow or excessive evaporation of tears
Tear film instability may be secondary to hyperosmolarity which results in increased evaporation of tears
Signs and Symptoms
Common ocular signs & symptoms experienced by patients that usually worsen later in the day include the following:
Blurry vision (may clear temporarily w/ blink)
Contact lens intolerance
Foreign body sensation
Increased blinking frequency
Symptoms may be aggravated by wind, air travel, low humidity, prolonged use of the eyes associated w/ decreased blink rate, or smoky environments
Increases evaporation or causes irritation that worsens dry eye syndrome (DES) symptoms
Dr. Karl Csaky, Dr. Charles Wykoff, Dr. Jeffrey Heier,
08 Apr 2021
Intravitreal injections with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents are associated with significant treatment burden for patients with diabetic macular oedema (DME) and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). At the Angiogenesis, Exudation, and Degeneration 2021 Virtual Congress, Dr Karl Csaky of Retina Foundation of the Southwest, Dallas, Texas, US, Dr Charles Wykoff of Retina Consultants of Texas, Houston, Texas, US, and Dr Jeffrey Heier of Ophthalmic Consultants of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, US, presented results of four phase III trials that compared the efficacy and safety of the investigational bispecific antibody, faricimab, administered at up to Q16W dosing intervals, vs the decoy VEGF-A/placental growth factor (PIGF) receptor aflibercept at Q8W dosing intervals, in patients with retinal vascular diseases.