Dry eye syndrome is a clinical condition wherein the patient experiences ocular and conjunctival irritation due to decreased tear production and/or excessive tear evaporation.
It is associated with increased osmolarity of the tear film and inflammation of the ocular surface.
Goal of treatments are to relieve symptoms of patients, to improve visual acuity & quality of life of patients, to restore ocular surface & tear film to normal homeostatic state and to correct the underlying defect.
Also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) or dysfunctional tear syndrome
Disease of the tears & ocular surface that is secondary to several factors
Associated w/ increased osmolarity of the tear film & inflammation of the ocular surface
Dysfunction in either of the lacrimal glands, ocular surface, eyelids, meibomian glands, or associated sensory or motor nerves may lead to dry eye syndrome (DES) causing changes in the volume, composition, distribution, &/or clearance of the tear film
Tear hyperosmolarity may be due to reduced aqueous flow or excessive evaporation of tears
Tear film instability may be secondary to hyperosmolarity which results in increased evaporation of tears
Signs and Symptoms
Common ocular signs & symptoms experienced by patients that usually worsen later in the day include the following:
Blurry vision (may clear temporarily w/ blink)
Contact lens intolerance
Foreign body sensation
Increased blinking frequency
Symptoms may be aggravated by wind, air travel, low humidity, prolonged use of the eyes associated w/ decreased blink rate, or smoky environments
Increases evaporation or causes irritation that worsens dry eye syndrome (DES) symptoms
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic appears to have a significant impact on oncological care, according to a study, which stresses the need for psycho-oncological support for cancer patients.
Sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors increase the risk for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) by almost threefold, with molecule-specific analyses suggesting a class effect, according to a study.
Monthly prophylaxis with the fixed-dose combination of naphthoquine-azithromycin (NQAZ) is well tolerated and confers significant protection against infection with Plasmodium parasites among individuals residing in malaria-endemic areas in Southeast Asia, as shown in the results of a phase III trial.