Dry eye syndrome is a clinical condition wherein the patient experiences ocular and conjunctival irritation due to decreased tear production and/or excessive tear evaporation.
It is associated with increased osmolarity of the tear film and inflammation of the ocular surface.
Goal of treatments are to relieve symptoms of patients, to improve visual acuity & quality of life of patients, to restore ocular surface & tear film to normal homeostatic state and to correct the underlying defect.
Treatment with water-free cyclosporine formulation at either 0.1% or 0.05% concentration is tolerable and provides effective relief of the signs of dry eye disease, according to data from a phase II study.
Transdermal androgen appears beneficial to ageing patients with sex hormone deficiency-associated dry eye, with a recent study showing that short-term treatment relieves both symptoms and signs of the condition, as well as improves quality of life (QOL). These benefits are achieved without increasing the incidence of serious side effects.
Silent reading for as little as 30 minutes may induce measurable changes on the tear film and ocular surface in individuals at least 50 years of age, especially in those with dry eye, a study has found.
Fingerprick autologous blood (FAB) appears to be effective and safe in the treatment of severe dry eye syndrome (DES), eliminating the need for blood donation and specialist processing, as reported in a pilot study.
A large proportion of patients with dry eye disease (DED) may experience some degree of ocular pain, and the severity of such pain correlates with nonocular factors such as antidepressant medication use rather than with clinical signs of DED, a study has shown.
Both hydroxypropyl guar/polyethylene glycol/propylene glycol lubricating eye-drop (HPG/PEG/PG) and osmoprotective carboxymethylcellulose/glycerine eye-drop (O/CMC) lessen ocular surface damage in patients with dry eye, according to a study. The two treatments are found to be effective, convenient and well tolerated. In addition, HPG/PEG/PG is noninferior to O/CMC.
Repeated use of disposable eyelid-warming steamers containing menthol for dry eye may induce improvements in tear film parameters without the need for administration of eyedrops or medication, according to a study. This suggests that the intervention provides an attractive, novel treatment strategy for patients with dry eye disease (DED).
A recent study reports a mean growth rate of proximal aorta of about 0.1 mm/year in hypertensive patients with known aortic dilatation. In addition, those with increased rather than normal aortic z score have slower dilatation over time.
Among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF), treatment with apixaban was associated with a lower rate of ischaemic stroke, systemic embolism, and major bleeding compared with rivaroxaban, according to a large study assessing patients in routine care.