diverticulitis
DIVERTICULITIS
Diverticulitis is the acute inflammation of the diverticulum or saclike protrusion from the wall of the intestines caused by injury and bacterial proliferation. 
Abdominal pain is usually localized to the left lower quadrant, is abrupt, steady, severe and worsens over time.
Other signs and symptoms are fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and altered bowel movements especially constipation but may also present with diarrhea or tenesmus.

Definition

Diverticulitis: Inflammation of ≥1 diverticula

  • Diverticula: Herniation of the mucosa & submucosa of the colonic wall that may fill with fecal material or undigested food particles

Signs and Symptoms

  • Abdominal pain which is usually localized, abrupt, steady & may worsen over time
    • In Asians, right-sided diverticulitis is more common & is an important differential diagnosis that may be confused with appendicitis
    • Left-sided diverticulitis commonly involves the sigmoid colon & presents as left lower quadrant pain
  • Fever
  • Anorexia
  • Nausea & vomiting (N/V)
  • Altered bowel habits, commonly constipation but may also present with diarrhea or tenesmus
  • The following may suggest complicated diverticulitis:
    • Severe, generalized abdominal pain may be due to peritonitis
    • Purulent or fecaloid vaginal discharge in patients with colovaginal fistulas
    • Fecaluria or pneumaturia in patients with colovesicular fistulas
    • Back or lower extremity pain in cases of retroperitoneal gut perforation
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