Diarrhea is a change in normal bowel movements characterized by increased frequency, water content or volume of stools.
Infectious diarrhea is diarrhea of infectious origin (bacteria, virus, protozoal) and is usually associated with symptoms of nausea and vomiting and abdominal cramps.
Dysentery (invasive diarrhea) has the presence of visible blood in diarrheic stool.
A point-of-order test restriction algorithm for hospitalized adults with diarrhoea reduces bacterial stool cultures and ova and parasites testing, which results in substantial cost and time savings, according to a recent study.
Repeat 2-week rifaximin treatment course (up to three) appears
to be effective and safe for patients with relapsing symptoms of
diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), producing marked
improvements in abdominal pain and frequency of loose stools without
increasing the incidence of adverse events, according to the results of a
phase III trial.
The types of bariatric surgery differentially affect the risk of developing acute pancreatitis postoperatively, such that the risk is greater in patients who undergo vertical sleeve gastrectomy vs Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, according to a study. Risk factors include younger age and presence of gallstones.
Smoking appears to increase the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm, particularly among current smokers, reports a recent meta-analysis. The risk appears to taper with a lower number of cigarette sticks smoked per day.