Chronic diarrhea is defined as the abnormal passage of ≥3 loose or liquid stools per day for ≥4 week with or without a daily stool weight >200 g/day.
The definition of chronic diarrhea based on symptoms alone will lead to an overlap with functional bowel disorders eg irritable bowel syndrome.
Diarrhea that is continuous or nocturnal and lasting <3 months is more likely due to an organic disease.
The absence of abdominal pain during defecation and presence of weight loss are points against the diagnosis of functional bowel syndrome eg irritable bowel syndrome.
In patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) receiving angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, high dosing confers benefits for the risk of death or hospitalization that are similar to that obtained with lower dosing, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis.