diabetic%20retinopathy
DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
Diabetic retinopathy is an abnormality of the microvasculature of the retina that occurs to almost all patients with chronic diabetes mellitus.
It is one of the leading cause of blindness worldwide and principal cause of impaired vision in patients aged 25-75 years of age.
The abnormality causes microaneurysms, retinal hemorrhages, lipid exudates, macular edema & neovascular vessel growth that may lead to blindness.

Diabetic Retinopathy References

  1. Antonetti DA, Klein R, Gardner TW. Diabetic retinopathy. N Engl J Med. 2012 Mar;366(13):1227-1239. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1005073. PMID: 22455417
  2. Schwartz S & Flynn W. Pharmacotherapies for diabetic retinopathy: present and future. Exp Diabetes Res. 2007. PMID: 17713597
  3. Wilkinson CP, Ferris FL III, Klen RE, et al. Proposed international clinical diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema disease severity scales. Ophthalmology. 2003 Sep;110(9):1677-1682. PMID: 13129861
  4. Boyer DS, Faber D, Gupta S, et al. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant for treatment of diabetic macular edema in victrectomized patients. Retina. 2011 May;31(5):915-923. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0b013e318206d18c. Accessed 03 Oct 2012. PMID: 21487341
  5. Fante RJ, Durairaj VD, Oliver S. Diabetic retinopathy: an update on treatment. Am J Med. 2010 Mar;123(3):213-216. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.09.020. PMID: 20193825
  6. Zhang X, Bao S, Lai D, et al. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide inhibits breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier through differential regulation of VEGF-A & its receptors in early diabetic rat retinas. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1026-1033. doi: 10.2337/db07-0982. PMID: 18174522
  7. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Endocrinology/15/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Endocrinology.xml
  8. American Optometric Association. Diabetic retinopathy. http://www.aoa.org/x4712.xml. Accessed 20 Jun 2012
  9. Fraser CE, D'Amico DJ. Classification & clinical features of diabetic retinopathy. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/index. May 2011. Accessed 31 May 2012
  10. Australian Government National Health & Medical Research Council. Australian Diabetes Society for the Department of Health & Ageing. Guidelines for the management of diabetic retinopathy. http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/di15.pdf. 2008
  11. American Academy of Ophthalmology Retina Panel. Preferred practice pattern guidelines diabetic retinopathy. San Francisco, CA: American Academy of Ophthalmology. http://one.aao.org/guidelines-browse?filter=preferredpracticepatterns. 2008. Accessed 31 May 2012
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