Diabetic retinopathy is an abnormality of the microvasculature of the retina that occurs to almost all patients with chronic diabetes mellitus.
It is one of the leading cause of blindness worldwide and principal cause of impaired vision in patients aged 25-75 years of age.
The abnormality causes microaneurysms, retinal hemorrhages, lipid exudates, macular edema & neovascular vessel growth that may lead to blindness.
Antonetti DA, Klein R, Gardner TW. Diabetic retinopathy. N Engl J Med. 2012 Mar;366(13):1227-1239. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1005073. PMID: 22455417
Schwartz S & Flynn W. Pharmacotherapies for diabetic retinopathy: present and future. Exp Diabetes Res. 2007. PMID: 17713597
Wilkinson CP, Ferris FL III, Klen RE, et al. Proposed international clinical diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema disease severity scales. Ophthalmology. 2003 Sep;110(9):1677-1682. PMID: 13129861
Boyer DS, Faber D, Gupta S, et al. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant for treatment of diabetic macular edema in victrectomized patients. Retina. 2011 May;31(5):915-923. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0b013e318206d18c. Accessed 03 Oct 2012. PMID: 21487341
Fante RJ, Durairaj VD, Oliver S. Diabetic retinopathy: an update on treatment. Am J Med. 2010 Mar;123(3):213-216. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.09.020. PMID: 20193825
Zhang X, Bao S, Lai D, et al. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide inhibits breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier through differential regulation of VEGF-A & its receptors in early diabetic rat retinas. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1026-1033. doi: 10.2337/db07-0982. PMID: 18174522
American Optometric Association. Diabetic retinopathy. http://www.aoa.org/x4712.xml. Accessed 20 Jun 2012
Fraser CE, D'Amico DJ. Classification & clinical features of diabetic retinopathy. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/index. May 2011. Accessed 31 May 2012
Australian Government National Health & Medical Research Council. Australian Diabetes Society for the Department of Health & Ageing. Guidelines for the management of diabetic retinopathy. http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/di15.pdf. 2008
American Academy of Ophthalmology Retina Panel. Preferred practice pattern guidelines diabetic retinopathy. San Francisco, CA: American Academy of Ophthalmology. http://one.aao.org/guidelines-browse?filter=preferredpracticepatterns. 2008. Accessed 31 May 2012
A novel version of the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) can be used as a more accurate measurement device for myopic patients after laser assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery in place of the current reference tonometer, according to a new study.