Treatment Guideline Chart
Diabetic retinopathy is an abnormality of the microvasculature of the retina that occurs to almost all patients with chronic diabetes mellitus.
It is one of the leading cause of blindness worldwide and principal cause of impaired vision in patients aged 25-75 years of age.
The abnormality causes microaneurysms, retinal hemorrhages, lipid exudates, macular edema & neovascular vessel growth that may lead to blindness.

Diabetic Retinopathy References

  1. Antonetti DA, Klein R, Gardner TW. Diabetic retinopathy. N Engl J Med. 2012 Mar;366(13):1227-1239. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1005073. PMID: 22455417
  2. Schwartz S & Flynn W. Pharmacotherapies for diabetic retinopathy: present and future. Exp Diabetes Res. 2007. PMID: 17713597
  3. Wilkinson CP, Ferris FL III, Klen RE, et al. Proposed international clinical diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema disease severity scales. Ophthalmology. 2003 Sep;110(9):1677-1682. PMID: 13129861
  4. Boyer DS, Faber D, Gupta S, et al. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant for treatment of diabetic macular edema in victrectomized patients. Retina. 2011 May;31(5):915-923. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21487341. Accessed 03 Oct 2012. PMID: 21487341
  5. Fante RJ, Durairaj VD, Oliver S. Diabetic retinopathy: an update on treatment. Am J Med. 2010 Mar;123(3):213-216. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.09.020. PMID: 20193825
  6. Zhang X, Bao S, Lai D, et al. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide inhibits breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier through differential regulation of VEGF-A & its receptors in early diabetic rat retinas. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1026-1033. doi: 10.2337/db07-0982. PMID: 18174522
  7. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Endocrinology/15/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Endocrinology.xml
  8. American Optometric Association. Diabetic retinopathy. http://www.aoa.org/x4712.xml. Accessed 20 Jun 2012.
  9. Fraser CE, D'Amico DJ. Classification & clinical features of diabetic retinopathy. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/index. May 2011. Accessed 31 May 2012.
  10. Australian Government National Health & Medical Research Council. Australian Diabetes Society for the Department of Health & Ageing. Guidelines for the management of diabetic retinopathy. http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/di15.pdf. 2008
  11. American Academy of Ophthalmology Retina Panel. Preferred practice pattern guidelines diabetic retinopathy. San Francisco, CA: American Academy of Ophthalmology. http://one.aao.org/guidelines-browse?filter=preferredpracticepatterns. 2008. Accessed 31 May 2012.
  12. Diabetes Canada Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee; Altomare F, Kherani A, Lovshin J. Retinopathy. Can J Diabetes. 2018 Apr;42(Suppl 1):S210-S216. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjd.2017.10.027. PMID: 296500099
  13. Flaxel CJ, Adelman RA, Bailey ST, et al. Diabetic retinopathy Preferred Practice Pattern®. Ophthalmology. 2020 Jan;127(1):P66-P145. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2019.09.025. PMID: 31757498
  14. Fraser CE, D’Amico DJ. Diabetic retinopathy: prevention and treatment. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. 29 Oct 2019. Accessed 17 Apr 2021.
  15. Fraser CE, D’Amico DJ, Shah AR. Diabetic retinopathy: classification and clinical features. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. 26 Oct 2020.
  16. International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO). Updated 2017 ICO guidelines for diabetic eye care. ICO. http://www.icoph.org. Jan 2017.
  17. McCulloch DK. Diabetic retinopathy: screening. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. 14 Apr 2021.
  18. Ministry of Health Malaysia. Diabetic retinopathy screening: training module for healthcare providers. https://www.moh.gov.my. 2017.
  19. Optometry Australia. Clinical guideline: examination and management of patients with diabetes. http://www.optometry.org.au. Sep 2018.
  20. Silva PS. Diabetic retinopathy: pathogenesis. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. 23 Oct 2019.
  21. Solomon SD, Chew E, Duh EJ, et al. Diabetic retinopathy: a position statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2017 Mar;40(3):412-418. doi: 10.2337/dc16-2641. PMID: 28223445
  22. VitreoRetina Society of the Philippines (VPSP). Diabetic retinopathy (DR) preferred practice patterns (PPP) Philippines 2016. https://www.vrsp.org.ph. Oct 2016.
  23. Wong TY, Sun J, Kawasaki R, et al. Guidelines on diabetic eye care: the International Council of Ophthalmology recommendations for screening, follow-up, referral, and treatment based on resource settings. Ophthalmology. 2018 Oct;125(10):1608-1622. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2018.04.007. PMID: 29776671
  24. World Health Organization (WHO). Diabetic retinopathy screening: a short guide. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2020. https://www.apps.who.int/.
Editor's Recommendations
Special Reports