Diabetic ketoacidosis is characterized by having blood glucose >13.9 mmol/L, arterial pH <7.3 in adults or venous pH <7.3 in pediatrics, bicarbonate <15 mEg/L, moderate ketonuria or ketonemia and anion gap >14.
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state in adults is described as having blood glucose >33.3 mmol/L, arterial pH >7.3, bicarbonate >15 mEq/L, mild ketonuria or ketonemia, effective serum osmolality >320 mOsm/kg and variable anion gap.
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state in pediatric patients has blood glucose >33.3 mmol/L, venous pH >7.3, bicarbonate >15 mEq/L and altered mental status or severe dehydration.
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